To Study the Problems Faced by Administration of Private Schools

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To Study the Problems Faced by Administration of Private Schools Muhammad Mushtaq 1, Muhammad Tayyab Alam 2 Department of Education, Foundation University Islamabad, PAKISTAN. 1
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To Study the Problems Faced by Administration of Private Schools Muhammad Mushtaq 1, Muhammad Tayyab Alam 2 Department of Education, Foundation University Islamabad, PAKISTAN. 1 2 ABSTRACT Since Pakistan birth it faced many problems in all the areas because of conflicting rules and regulations which are amended and regulated with passage of time as per need of the people but it could not have been done. Here there are many laws made more than hundred years old and still unrectified yet. Private school education is one of them. The private schools share most of the state responsibilities but they face many problems. Firstly, obtaining a building for school that has suitable environment like cross ventilation system, open area, place or space for co curricular activities, sewerage and sanitary system and reasonably wide and large classrooms is very tedious and tiring work. The rental building contracts between building owners and schools owners are always for very short period while authorities demand 5 years contract for registration then yearly increase in the rent, advance payment of the rent also keep the owners tense and anxious, as they neither have any other option nor sources to build their own buildings. In this paper, an effort has been made to evaluate the problems faced by the school owners especially in the Cantonment Board area. The study founded that there are some problems related to state authorities which are more sever apart from the some problems related to physical facilities are also highlighted and at the end recommendations are made to remove these barrier for smooth running of the private schools and sharing their responsibilities of raising literacy and education standards. Keywords: Problems, private schools, cantonment board, analysis, administration INTRODUCTION Education is a continuous and dynamic process that brings mostly desired and positive change in behaviour of human organism. It is a multi-dimensional activity that includes physical, moral, spiritual and scientific development with acquisition of knowledge, values and learning of skills. It is reconstruction of experiences to make better social adjustment to the existing environment. Formal education in its close circuit covers the influence intentional planned, selected and employed by the society for the benefits of the next generation, with objective of modifying the behaviour of the young and to mould his posture in a more desirable format than the one he would have been in without this formal education. The education which is consciously planned and imparted through the process of curriculum and instruction is genuinely called true education. Education institutions are the first specialized place for imparting formal or academic education to the learner. In Pakistan the panic behaviour of nationalization and denationalization did not bring any positive change, therefore, it was felt rightly in the current educational policy that education should not be ignored if we want to make rapid progress. The education at all levels has to be shared by private and public sectors to enhance the quality of education and increase the literacy rate The charming slogan education for all is yet to be realized and if it is left on Government only it would never be realized. As current educational policy provides encouragement and incentives for private sector schools, colleges and universities but this encouragement is only seen at higher level of education where as elementary and secondary education is still at the lower level of the priorities as it is only represented by educational authorities and other concerned departments not by the concerned people. The basic idea to conduct research on this particular topic is to make alert and realize those concerned authorities about the real and genuine problems faced by school owners. Mostly these private schools are located in populated area where they are easily accessible as compared to state owned schools. Mostly the students walk to school as it is close to their residence. This facility is boosted and appreciated by most of the parents as it is proved by the ratio of the students enrolled in these private sectors educational institutes and by the attitude of the parents and students towards private educational institutes. On the other hand, the attitude of the govt. authorities is not encouraging so the owners of these schools suffer a lot. They remained tense, worried and anxious, as they are uncertain about their future. This uncertainty hovers all the time on the head of the private school owners. They face many types of problems but in this research, only two of them have been discussed. 1. Problems related to governmental organizations 2. Problems related to physical facilities of the school Problems Related To Authorities The problems related to authorities are those that have direct link with government. As education, especially primary education is the responsibility of state like food, clothing and residence. In our country, the condition is very different as it is proved in different surveys and statistical figures. This data is a clear slap on the civilized society and people. The standard of education, these state owned schools provide is worse, neither these schools have standard to provide quality education nor do they have capacity to absorb the new admission seekers. Therefore it is an urgent need to boost and provide assistance to private sector that has will and strength to cope the situation and it will surely ensure the access to education for all, at all levels and in all areas of the country. Instead of further enlightening, ennobling and appreciating its role the government agencies remained alert and active to take action against these schools. The conditions and parameters set by government for these schools are not met even by the government own schools in many parts of the country. These private schools are required to fulfill those requirements, which many of the state owned schools do not fulfill. The first problem is that these parameters should not be different but the same for all type of schools. Secondly, the red tape of the offices also compels one to offer bribe and use other unfair means. From the hygienic certificate from district health officer (DHO) to no objection certificate from Cantonment Board, from registration of an NGO to the membership of social security are some of the matters that require many rounds of the owners to the concerned offices and they can be called some of the major issues. Thirdly, the taxes like income tax, board tax, commercial property tax and bills are some of the extra financial burden on owners. The bombastic statement in the policy (2009) show a great number of incentives and attraction but reality on ground is very different and opposite to what it is claimed and proposed in it. Problem Related To Physical Facilities of the Schools The private schools share most of the state responsibilities but they face many problems related to physical facilities. Firstly, obtaining a building for school that has suitable environment like cross ventilation system, playground, reasonable green area, place or space 378 for co curricular activities, sewerage and sanitary system and reasonably wide and large classrooms is very tedious and tiring work. The rental building contracts between building owners and schools owners are always for very short period while authorities demand 5 years contract for registration then yearly increase in the rent, advance payment of the rent also keep the owners tense and anxious, as they neither have any other option nor sources to build their own buildings. In this paper, an effort has been made to evaluate the problems faced by the school owners especially in the Cantonment Board area. The study was carried out with the following objectives OBJECTIVES 1. To find out the problems of private school owners related to governmental authorities. 2. To locate the problems creating areas for the owners with reference to physical facilities of the schools. 3. To present the solution of the problem in form of recommendations The study is useful for different people especially for those who are directly or indirectly involved to educational activities. It may also be helpful for the planners, policy makers, Government officials and other authorities who do not give importance to private sector educational institutes. It also throws light on the problems that concerned with these authorities and they may feel serious about it and remove these hurdles to allow private sector work smoothly and confidently. It is helpful for the parents who usually have a negative attitude toward private schools. They mostly give preference to public schools even though the performance of these schools is not satisfactory. LITERATURE REVIEW Importance of Private Sector Most societies realized that education is too important to be left to chance. Consequently they establish schools to facilitate learning and to help people live better and happier life. Schools are created to provide a certain type of educational experience, which can be called the curriculum. Many experts and educationists described the importance of private sector in their own words. They provide depth and vision for the policy makers and planners to play their role in making rapid progress in the country. Becker (1987) in an interview with David Wood described that: Private schools are an important part of our school system. Their diversity and existence significantly increased the choice available to parents. We welcome the continuing contribution of healthy independent sector towards the development of tomorrow s citizen. People want variety and freedom to choose in all areas of life. In the sphere of education, parents choose particular schools for many different reasons. The right to exercise parental choice is a key component of the society. Qaisrani (1989 in a AEPAM occasional paper No.94 entitled involvement of private sector in the promotion of primary education in Pakistan reported that the National Policy of 1979 reviewing drawbacks of nationalization and resultantly come to the conclusion that there is a poor participation rates of public at all levels of education, The Govt. alone cannot carry the burden of the whole educational process and therefore they deemed it mandatory to encourage once again the incorporation of private sector in educational development Rehman and Akhtar (1995) conducted a comprehensive study of Private Taleemi Adaroon kay Qayam key Moharkat aur Mojuda Sahoolyat ka Jayza. He concluded that: a. Mostly education institutions are opened with personal investment and their main purpose is the solution of economic problem. b. Private schools receive large amount in terms of fee. He recommended that there should be some limitations in this way so that these schools cannot cross these limitations. c. Highly qualified teacher should be appointed in private schools and their salaries should be upgraded The first part of the first conclusion is correct but second part is controversial as most of the schools pull on both the things profits and quality education and even they do not get any aid from the government. The second recommendation is reasonable enough as many schools charge large amount of fee so it should be the responsibility of government to have a control over the fees and it should be according to the expenditure. The third point needs clarity because if the school charge low fee how can its financial sources allow paying the teachers high. There should be some mechanism to solve the problem. Akbar (1998) made a study on Role of Private sector in expansion of primary education in Rawalpindi city, says that private sector is providing quality education to the students Govt. of Pakistan (1998) stated that there is an urgent need of more active private sector partnership in Pakistan. In many countries the private sector has helped to remove some of the bottlenecks that are hindering the development of resources. Private sector has done very well in providing high quality education to higher strata of society in urban areas. However, there is a dire need to extend and spread these facilities to the poor and less privileged population. To discuss the systematic development of educational system in Indo Pakistan the researcher has divided these historical periods into two main kinds, The Muslim Period and The British Period. In the following lines, it is discussed in details Issues Related to Privately Managed Institution It is undeniable that the role of private sector is pivotal in all spheres of life without any exception. It has improved quality and quantity of education too. This sector has actually sharing the state burden as well as social burden. Currently the growth of private sectors in education is tremendous; a regulatory control can streamline and improve the academic and structural improvement. Society at large has welcomed its role and functioning. The severe criticism by the society is on fee structure which is going up with price hike. It is true but the problem lies with the facilities as what they provide is never beyond their fee limit. Secondly the access to education by poor students is a very serious issue, it is needed to have legal framework for matching the facilities with fee ratio and poor student admission. With all these things these schools manages their resources and they do not take grant from the state. The state itself or the provinces do not developed or designed any type of thing to regulate fee structure and it is imperative to find ways and means that could attract private investors at one side and at other there should be a mechanism to provide relief to the poorer families. Danish schools system is an appreciable effort by the provincial government for inducting poor but talented student in a world class institution. These private schools have more attraction as they claim to have English as a medium of instruction but actually they run it with mixture of first and foreign language. In the policy 1979 Urdu was adopted as medium of instruction in schools which later on changed and 380 English has been made a medium of instruction. This switching over must be stopped and state should decide once and for all about it. Some of the schools are still following Cambridge education system and their students appear in O, and A level examination which also creates a class distinction in the society. The concept of universalisation of education cannot be realized until and unless private sectors schools are allowed to set up and expand their networks in other areas. Another allegation is that these schools are mostly set up in urban area while they are needed in rural areas but we can see that this trend has changed and now there many schools which are opening their campuses in urban areas too. The allegation about serving elite class purpose is again baseless as many schools are set up in less developed areas and current studies of World Bank show that there is huge difference in students academic quality among private and public schools as the private sector performance is three times higher than the public sector. The selection is another objection but I believe that courses are selected on the basis of quality only. The text books published by the board are in poor quality in material and contents whereas foreign author and publisher books are far better than them. A regulatory body just as NACTE should be established to monitor the teaching learning process with course contents and curriculum development comparing it with advanced countries for improvement and enhancement. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research is qualitative and based on the data collected through questionnaire. It is divided into three portions, the first one is related to the problems concerned with authorities it has twelve stems that require numerating as per their priority. The second one is concerned with physical facilities that has nine stems and their responses are in yes and no form. The third one is related to pupils, teachers and parents, it has twenty stems that has yes or no option. The questionnaire was distributed among the Principals and Administrators. It was collected after two to three weeks time, as a few of them did not return it on time. Population The owners of the private schools situated in Cantonment Board Rawalpindi. These schools owners were randomly selected. They have coeducation classes so both male and female schools owners were chosen as sample of the study. Sampling The stratified sampling technique is used to select the schools and their owners. The criteria were based on three things. i. The school should have been established at least five years ago. ii. It should have strength of (300) three hundred students. iii. It should be a high/ secondary school. The total forty-five schools were distributed the questionnaire but thirty-seven returned after hard struggle. They were afraid of the questions but after the personal assurance, they gave them back. Some of them were unable to fill the questionnaire, only a few gave some suggestions to solve these problems. Delimitation The study has been delimited population wise as only 35 schools that fulfilled the above criteria. It has also been limited to the jurisdiction of the Cantonment Board. The male and 381 female secondary schools owners were given the questionnaire without considering their gender. Data Collection The total forty five schools were distributed the questionnaire but thirty seven returned after hard struggle. They were afraid of the questions but after the personal assurance they gave them back. Some of them were unable to fill the questionnaire, only a few gave some suggestions to solve these problems. The Questionnaire for School Owners and Principals Note; only the owners / principals or Administrator should fill the form. The information will be kept confidential and no authority has right to use this information for any legal purposes. 1. The question about finding the building was very easy as many of the owners face this problem because the owners of the building usually have s view that the school children are noisy and they spoil and break the building as they are not very much careful about the building. Another reason is that the government also places commercial tax on the building in the Cantonment Area if they are used by schools or any other commercial purposes. The response of the question was negative as 32 out of 35 say Yes that they do not find buildings easily. 2. The third question was about examination hall. It is also very clear that in most of the residential buildings, there are no such big halls but some of the schools usually use TV room as a hall. Therefore, the response is obvious as 31 out of 35 declared that they do not have examination hall in the schools. 3. The furniture that is basic need of the school but it is very costly as the response show that 30 out of 35 gave the response of Yes of the question about the cost of furniture is high. 4. When the respondent were asked about the commercial meter of electricity and gas there were some of the schools 10 out of 35 say that they do not have commercial meters but majority of the respondents 25 out of 35, claimed that they have commercial meters of electricity and gas as commercial charges are four times more than the domestic charges. 5. The very important question about the facilities provided by the government to private schools got negative answers as 33 out of 35 confirmed that they did never have any help from any of the governmental agencies. It shows that the high slogans in the education policy do not match what actually happens in the fields. 6. The question about the cross ventilation system got good result as 30 out of 35 schools consider t
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