Title: MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS IN OVERCROWDED CLASSROOMS AT SECONDARY LEVEL

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Review Of Research Vol.2, Issue. 10, July ISSN: X ORIGINAL ARTICLE Available online at MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS IN OVERCROWDED CLASSROOMS AT SECONDARY
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Review Of Research Vol.2, Issue. 10, July ISSN: X ORIGINAL ARTICLE Available online at MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS IN OVERCROWDED CLASSROOMS AT SECONDARY LEVEL N.SASIKUMAR, M. PARIMALA FATHIMA AND M. PANIMALAR ROJA Research scholar,center for Research in Education,Thava Thiru Kundrakudi Adigalar College Campus,Kundrakudi,Sivagangai District. Tamil Nadu, South India. Research co-ordinator,center for Research in Education,Thava Thiru Kundrakudi Adigalar College Campus,Kundrakudi,Sivagangai District. Tamil Nadu, South India Research scholar,center for Research in Education,Thava Thiru Kundrakudi Adigalar College Campus,Kundrakudi,Sivagangai District. Tamil Nadu, South India. Abstract: KEY WORDS: The present paper discussed on Managerial problems faced by teachers in overcrowded classrooms at secondary level. The overcrowded classrooms create an obstacle in the progressive activities of classroom teaching learning process, the teacher activity successfully in fulfilling and prevent to achieve the instructional objectives and three modes of domains such as cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The teachers may spend most of their time in Overcrowded classrooms, demanding students' attentiveness or concentrating on classroom management activities to regulate students' activities in a proper way. The entire class including the teachers may feel discomfort and teacher may hesitate to teach and watch the clock, to avoid the unfavourable environment of overcrowded classroom and reveal their worries to fellow teachers and others. Instruction in a large group is a challenging task to any teacher who involve in teachinglearning process inside the classroom effectively. Managerial problems, overcrowded classroom, teaching learning process and instructional objectives.introduction The destiny of the country is shaped in the millions of her classrooms. The Indian Education Commission ( ) that classroom is the centre stage for teaching and learning in the school /college. Unfortunately, the Educational institutions in India are often has large number of students in the classroom. The overcrowded classrooms create an obstacle in the progressive activities of classroom teaching learning process, the teacher activity successfully in fulfilling and prevent to achieve the instructional objectives and three modes of domains such as cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In the classroom the primary objective of a teacher should treat each and every individual student in a proper way in order to regulate his activities and to develop his inner personality, not only that he has to give him a widest opportunity to develop his skills, abilities and potentialities at the optimum level. But in the classroom like overcrowded classrooms, teachers may spend most of their time in demanding students' attentiveness or concentrating on classroom management activities to regulate students' activities in a proper way. The entire class including the teachers may feel discomfort and teacher may hesitate to teach and watch the clock, to avoid the unfavourable environment of overcrowded classroom and reveal their worries to fellow teachers and others. Instruction in a large group is a challenging task to any teacher who involve in teaching-learning process inside the classroom effectively. Since the number of learners in overcrowded classroom are more, Title: MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS FACED BY TEACHERS IN OVERCROWDED CLASSROOMS AT SECONDARY LEVEL Source:Review of Research [ X] N.SASIKUMAR, M. PARIMALA FATHIMA AND M. PANIMALAR ROJA yr:2013 vol:2 iss:10 teachers feel very difficult to prolong their teaching learning process in an effectively way in order to attain the specified objectives of teaching. At the same time, teacher cannot make any interaction among the learners in a large group. CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING The students in a overcrowded classroom will always have the motive of competition. The low acceptance and support among learners are predominant and the students' emotional involvement is very minimum in overcrowded classroom. Coordination of learners' efforts and division of labour is not at all possible normally. Moreover in the overcrowded classroom, there is positive climate for the development of delinquent behaviour. The behaviour such as stealing, assault, wilful destruction of property, truancy, defiance, hostility and resentment against authority, failure to make the grade and other form of misbehaviour of students are very common in overcrowded classroom. These problems arises in the overcrowded classroom environment can create stress among teachers to handle classes for students. Stresses of teachers due to overcrowded classrooms may leads to physiological effects such as increases blood pressure, increased heart rate, excessive sweating, frequent hot and cold spells, breathing problems, muscular problems etc and emotional effects such as anger, anxiety, nervousness, irritability, depression, low self esteem and job dissatisfaction etc., and behavioural effects such as frequent lapses in performance, improper communication and so on. Particularly in the overcrowded classrooms, delinquent activities happen often and often in the classroom itself. Thus, delinquency is actually a group phenomena and it is done by active support delinquent sub-groups (Cloward and Ohhim, 1960). In order to avoid and prevent the problems of teachers in overcrowded classrooms and at some extent to solve students' problems in a classroom environment, the investigator has undertaken this study on problems faced by teachers in overcrowded classrooms at secondary level. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE As outlined earlier the purpose of the study is to perceive new insight, new vision and new vista into the problem under investigation. The previous studies revealed that the problem of teachers faces problem in language instruction in overcrowded classrooms. This concept was supported by Burroughs et.al.,(1968), Strain and Jeris(1971). The previous studies also revealed that the problems of overcrowded classrooms and approaches to alleviate current social and Educational problems in relation to overcrowded classroom conditions. This study was supported by Hartley and James (1995), Stemnock and Suzanne(1975), Sealy and Robert(1976), Valenzula and Angela(1999), Titus and Dale (1997). Further, the previous studies revealed that the effect of Crowding on human behaviour and students achievement in schools. This concept was supported by Cohen and Barbara Porges(1975), Monsivais and George(1990), Damico and Sandra Bowman(1990), Hughes and carol(1995), Rivera-Batiz and Francisco(1995), child and Brenda(1998).The previous studies revealed the factors contribute to stress experienced by the teachers and students in overcrowded classrooms. This study was supported by Welch and Frances(1983), Predmore and Sarah(2004), Woolley et.al.,(2007), Heyl and Allision(2008), Abosi and Okey(2007). The previous studies expressed the discipline problems among the students in relation to the overcrowded classrooms. This concept was supported by Niedzielski and Herry(1987), Maxfield and David(2009).The previous studies revealed the teachers' views on overcrowded classrooms, student teacher ratios. This concept was supported by Smith-Davis and Judy(1989), Ediger and Marlow(1984), Hughes and caral(1995), Schiff and Tamara(2002), Root and Paul(1987), William and Joe(2005), Yaman and Havva(2009). The Summary of review of related literature revealed the managerial problems of classrooms. From the above related studies, it is understood that the previous studies revealed the difficulties in teaching-learning process, essential infrastructure facilities, stress experienced by the teachers and also by the students in overcrowded classrooms. These studies helped the investigator to support the present study. RESEARCH METHOD Since this study attempts to bring out relevant details from teachers of secondary schools regarding various expected outcomes of the managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms in schools. Normative Survey method was found appropriate for this study. In this method, the investigator used the research tool of questionnaire to get direct responses from the respondents so that the data may be a valid, 2 suitable and correct one in order to get accurate result in the present study.the sampling technique employed in the present study is Simple Random Sampling. The investigator to collect sample from the teachers who are working at secondary level schools in Sivaganga District, Tamilnadu, India. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1.To find out any significant difference between the male and female teachers of secondary schools in relation to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms. 2.To find out any significant difference between the rural and urban area residence teachers of secondary 3.To find out any significant difference between the rural and urban area school teachers of secondary 4.To find out any significant difference between co-education, boys and girls school teachers of secondary 5.To find out any significant difference between government, government aided and private school teachers of secondary 6.To find out any significant difference between Under graduate, Post graduate and M.Phil., educational qualification teachers of secondary schools in relation to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms. 7.To find out any significant difference between the 0-10, 11-20, 21 and above teaching experience teachers of secondary HYPOTHESES OF THE PRESENT STUDY 1.There is no significant difference between the male and female teachers of secondary schools in relation to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms. 2.There is no significant difference between the rural and urban area residence teachers of secondary 3.There is no significant difference between the rural and urban area school teachers of secondary schools in relation to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms. 4.There is no significant difference between co-education, boys and girls school teachers of secondary 5.There is no significant difference between government, government aided and private school teachers of secondary 6.There is no significant difference between Under graduate, Post graduate and M.Phil., educational qualification teachers of secondary schools in relation to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms. 7.There is no significant difference between the 0-10, 11-20, 21 and above teaching experience teachers of secondary RESULTS OF THE STUDY 1.it is found that, there is no significant difference between male and female teachers of secondary schools in their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms and therefore the research hypothesis is accepted 2.it is found that, there is no significant difference between rural and urban residence teachers of secondary schools in their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms and therefore the research hypothesis is accepted. 3.it is found that, there is no significant difference between rural and urban area school teachers of secondary schools in their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms and therefore the research hypothesis is accepted. 3 S.No Variables N Mean SD 't' Value 1 Male Female Rural Residential Urban Residential 5 Rural Locality School Urban Locality School Level of Significance 1.it is found that, there is no significant difference between co-education, boys and girls school teachers of secondary schools in respect to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms and therefore the research hypothesis is accepted. 2. it is found that, there is no significant difference between between government, government aided and private school teachers of secondary schools in respect to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms and therefore the research hypothesis is accepted. 3.it is found that, there is no significant difference between educational qualification teachers of secondary schools in respect to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms and therefore the research hypothesis is accepted. it is found that, there is no significant difference between 0-10, 11-20, 21 and above teaching experience teachers of secondary schools in respect to their managerial problems in overcrowded classrooms and therefore the research hypothesis is accepted S.No variables N Mean SD 'F' Value Level of Significance 1. Boys School 2. Girls School 3. Co educational school 4 Government School 5 Aided School 6 Private school 7 UG Qualification 8 PG Qualification 9 M.Phil Qualification Years Experience Years Experience and above Experience RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS 1.The present study reveals that teachers face high level of difficulties in overcrowded classrooms at secondary level. 2. have high intensity of managerial problems in spending time for recalling previous day teaching concepts, conducting class test during rainy seasons, time spending time for classroom management and spending time for drawing students' attention. Particularly male teachers in rural areas face problems at maximum extent. 3.Further, the research study implies that the highest level of managerial problems experienced by the teachers in coeducation schools located in rural areas. The research study also revealed that undergraduate and post graduate teachers residing in rural areas face highest level of problems. 4.More so, the managerial problems faced by the teachers of Government Aided Schools are found to be higher than that of the overcrowded classrooms located in Govt. Schools. 5.Based on the above major findings, the investigator offered some suggestions in the next section to solve the managerial problems of teachers in the overcrowded classrooms. Suggestions to Reduce the Problems of in Overcrowded Classrooms 1.The Government has to take necessary steps to maintain teacher-pupil ratio in all the Educational institutions. 2.To recall previous day teaching concepts, teachers can make the students create their own question on the topic and students may circulate among themselves and identify answers. 3.Design quizzes instead of conducting class test during rainy seasons. Establish a fun and competitive atmosphere within the class, by dividing the class into two or more teams. 4.Find another space that your class can use for energetic whole group activities. 5. can use multimedia approaches to draw attention of the students. 6.Teacher must establish a controlling capacity of the whole class that teacher can manage control any type of problems and reduce their intensity then and there. 7. who work in rural areas must undergo some special training to handle the overcrowded classroom so that they can avoid unnecessary problems in the School environment. CONCLUSION In Indian condition most of the schools have classrooms in which unlimited number of students admitted to study their subjects. Even though, there is a limit in the number of students for each classroom, administrators and academicians never show much attention towards over crowdedness. At the same time, many managerial problems are faced by teachers and students in teaching-learning environment because of the overcrowded classrooms. There are so many psychological as well as sociological problems that are faced by teachers and students in overcrowded classrooms. In order to avoid these problems, the investigator has undertaken the present research study which revealed some of the severe problems that are 5 faced by the teachers in overcrowded classrooms. The present study identified few important problems related to recalling the previous day concepts, classroom management, diversion of attention of students and these problems are mostly faced by Male Under graduate and Post graduate teachers who are working in Coeducation schools and Government Aided schools of rural areas. In order to avoid the above problems, the present research study also suggested some fruitful solutions such as multimedia effect may be given to students while teaching learning process is carried out by the teacher. Teacher may assign some class work to students as home works to reduce the amount of time that he is going to spend in the classroom. may follow some techniques like establish a signal to stop what they are doing and listen, for control the students inside the overcrowded classroom. If teachers make use of these solutions they can reduce the high intensity of the problems inside the classroom. 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