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RE v IE W THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL NO 4,1996 RBS The new generation of GSM 900, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 radio base stations Fraud management and prevention in Ericsson's AMPS/D-AMPS
RE v IE W THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL NO 4,1996 RBS The new generation of GSM 900, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 radio base stations Fraud management and prevention in Ericsson's AMPS/D-AMPS system CDPD - Adding wireless IP services to D-AMPS/AMPS wireless networks PCS Ericsson's turnkey solution for personal communications services A choice of system implementations for the service control point ERICSSON js CONTENTS No Vol.73 RBS The new generation of GSM 900, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 radio base stations Fraud management and prevention in Ericsson's AMPS/D-AMPS system CDPD - Adding wireless IP services to D-AM PS/AM PS wireless networks Cover: The continuous evolution of hardware technologies and software applications is rapidly transforming the once-static telecommunications scene into an ever-changing mosaic of services and products. PCS Ericsson's turnkey solution for personal communications services A choice of system implementations for the service control point CONTENTS Previous issues No. 4,1995 The introduction of UniSwitch in AXE 10 Copper enhancement MINI-LINK E - A new link for flexible transmission in cellular networks Dynamic routing in circuitswitched networks Ericsson Review - 70 years young No. 1,1996 Fixed cellular systems - an alternative way to provide basic telephony New power distribution and earthing for AXE Telecool Aero - A tailor-made cooling system for small telephone exchanges and containers Ericsson echo cancellers - a key to improved speech quality TEMS - A system for testing and monitoring air interfaces No. 2, 1996 GSM 900/DCS Ericsson's turnkey solutions for wireless communications services Ericsson's new access network management system, E-ANMS Remote upgrading and updating of AXE 10 software The Ericsson DXX cross-connect system in mobile networks No. 3, 1996 ARIDEM - a multi-service broadband access demonstrator Polymeric microstructures technology for future low-cost, high-volume teleand datacom components The GSM 900, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 systems in the wireless world of the future Modular telecom power with internal optical communication AIRLINE - the flexible radio access system Ericsson Review Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson Stockholm Responsible publisher Hakan Jansson Editor Steve Banner Editorial staff Eva Karlstein Layout Paues Media Address Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson S Stockholm, Sweden Fax Published in English and Spanish with four issues per year Subscription one year USD 45 Ericsson Review No. 4, CONTRIBUTORS in this issue Bjorn Hesse, who joined Ericsson in 1995, is product manager working with market messages for GSM 900/DCS 1800/ PCS 1900 base station products at Ericsson Radio Systems AB. He earned his MSc in Industrial and Management Engineering from the Linkoping Institute of Technology in Catharina Lundin is product manager in the strategic product management group at Cellular Systems, American Standards, Ericsson Radio Systems AB. She holds an MSc in Mechanical Engineering from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, and an MBA from George Mason University, Virginia. Binh Nguyen is a systems engineer in the CSM 8800 Cellular Network Systems Design group of Ericsson Research, Canada. He is currently working with fraud features. He holds an MSc in Electrical Engineering, awarded by Concordia University, Canada. Ben Ewart, senior product engineer, is responsible for analysis and documentation of AMPS/D-AMPS market requirements in the CMS 8800 Features and Services Applications group in Dallas. He holds a BSc in Electrical Engineering, awarded by Texas A&M University. Lars Wetterborg, currently manager of the wireless data product management group in the American Standards business unit of Ericsson Radio Systems AB, has been working in the field of data communication since Previously he spent about ten years in different R&D organisations for software development. He earned his MSc in Sven Hellsten is manager for base station product management in the CMS 40/PCS1900 system, working at Market Operations for North and South America. He holds an MSc in Physics Engineering awarded by the Department of Technology at Uppsala University in Robert E. Eubanks Jr. is currently project leader for the INX 2.2 Design project, developing the SCP-G. Previously, he worked on AXE design for the CCS (SS7) subsystem and on SMAS design. He joined Ericsson (US) in He has BSc and MSc degrees in Computer Science from University of Texas, Dallas. Marko Hentila is responsible for SCP-G product management in the Network Intelligence unit at Ericsson Telecom. After joining Ericsson in 1989, he was engaged in AXE software development, customer training, and local product management. He has an MSc in Electrical Engineering from Helsinki University of Technology. Thomas Larsson, manager of the Ericsson Network Intelligence Platforms product management group, is responsible for product plans and strategies. He holds MSc degrees in Electrical Engineering from Northeastern University, Boston, and from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. He joined Ericsson in Ericsson Review No. 4, 1996 FROM THE EDITOR Steve Banner Can you guys come down and help us with this problem next time it happens? This was the gist of a particular call to Ericsson's Technical Assistance Centre in Montreal one day in the early 1990s from the engineering staff of a cellular network operator in a large American city. The problem they were referring to was unexpected and unexplained bursts of unusually high traffic over their network at seemingly random intervals, and at widely varying locations. After a few days of overloading the resources of the region in which it took place, and causing considerable annoyance to subscribers, the high traffic would suddenly disappear and the network would return to normal. It must be remembered that the cellular industry was still quite young at this time, and operators and manufacturers alike were on a steep learning curve. Therefore it was not surprising that no-one could put forward a theory to satisfactorily explain this previously unseen phenomenon. After weeks of checking and re-checking their forecasts and network planning calculations, the operator's engineers called on Ericsson for assistance with their investigations. Several days laterthe unexplained peak reappeared in a new location and three radio network experts were quickly despatched southwards along with their test equipment. Upon their arrival in the city in question, they were driven to the base station that was at the heart of this latest mysterious disturbance to traffic. Before setting up their test equipment and preparing to work well into the night, the visiting experts decided to take the opportunity to walk to a nearby diner to have a quickmeal. As they turned a particular corner, they noticed ahead of them a line of parked limousines. As they drew level with the first car, a man approached them with a line that must have felt like it came straight from the movies : Psst! Wanna make a phone call? Anywhere in the world, as long as you like, twenty dollars! It was thus, by pure fluke, that the team of visitors had discovered the source of the mysterious and mobile traffic overloads. Stolen mobile telephones had been used to establish a flourishing illegal business which moved to a new area every few days to avoid detection. While the movie-like ending in this case is in some ways humorous, the above true example clearly illustrates the enormous potential cost of cellular fraud in terms of man-hours, lost revenue and customer dissatisfaction. While cellular systems have become much more complex and fraud-resistant since the early days of the industry, the methods used by fraudsters have also become more sophisticated. Ericsson's comprehensive portfolio of fraud-fighting features for its North American-standard cellular system (AMPS/D AMPS), as described in this issue of Review, has therefore become a vital weapon in the battle against the many forms of cellular fraud. The fruits of the continuous evolution of Ericsson's AMPS/D-AMPS system are also seen in the introduction of digital packet data into cellular networks. Ericsson's cellular digital packet data solution is designed to minimise cost to the operator by allowing the re-use of much of the existing cellular network equipment. But the above developments are by no means the only changes to the wireless technology landscape. The GSM-based series of standards have spread throughout the world and established an enormous customer presence, with a correspondingly large series of radio networks. Advances in technology and design have allowed Ericsson to introduce a new and smaller generation of radio base stations -the RBS 2000 series. This family of base stations offers the operator a number of flexible alternatives in providing high-quality radio coverage. The GSM-based PCS 1900 system also offers the operator a cost-effective and flexible means of providing service, with its well-proven architecture and wide range of subscriber services. Ericsson's system is described in this issue, along with a discussion on its future evolution. However no description of telecommunication networks would be complete without considering the administration of services and the subscriber base - especially with the growing number of operators competing in the market. The increasing complexity and intelligence of networks calls for a corresponding evolution of service control points. The SCP-G system offers the operator an improved choice of systems to control and administer their customer base - without the need to use a row of black limousines as a business office! Steve Banner Editor Ericsson Review No. 4, RBS The new generation of GSM 900, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 radio base stations Bjorn Hesse The dynamic growth of cellular networks is evident in many countries throughout the world. The penetration figures for mobile phones are even expected to rival those of the fixed phones in the near future. GSM-based systems are leading the growth in radio network deployment, and Ericsson have been largely instrumental in making GSM a worldwide success. Starting in 1991 with the RBS 200 family of radio base stations, Ericsson have worked continuously to enhance and evolve the radio network technology. The author describes Ericsson's approach to meeting the new requirements of the mass market, focusing on competitive cost, higher capacity, increased coverage, and improved voice quality. Fig. 1 GSM is the world's most widely deployed digital cellular technology. More than 40 million GSM calls are made every day, and the annual market growth exceeds 50 per cent. In July 1996, there were 156 GSM networks in 86 countries, serving some 20 million subscribers. Light areas indicate Ericsson contracts. In only five years, GSM has captured the market as the world's most widely deployed digital cellular technology. Its worldwide success has been driven by three key factors: - its evolutionary capabilities, from simply voice to a wide range of advanced data and personal services; - its cost-effectiveness, from planning and implementation to operation; - its fully open international standards, stimulating market growth and competition, and introducing a true multi-vendor environment. The DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 systems are two adaptations of the GSM standard which respond to mass-market needs in a very cost-effective way. In Europe, GSMbased DCS 1800 offerings complement the established GSM 900 networks. In North America, PCS 1900 networks are now being introduced in Canada and the US. RBS 2000 reduces operating and life-cycle costs In the evolution from business applications to broader consumer usage, GSM operators must strengthen their networks and enhance their coverage and capacity offerings. Operators must also provide good indoor coverage in homes, offices and indoor public areas. To satisfy the evolving requirements of the mass market, the stable and proven GSM network components - such as radio base stations-will be crucial. Radio base stations, RBS, represent the largest proportion of network infrastructure investments, as well as a significant part of operating costs. RBS-site rentals can be as high as 40 per cent of operating costs. It is also becoming more difficult and expensive to find sites for suitable radio base stations, especially in high-capacity demand areas. Zoning regulations and special requirements from property owners often interfere with the operator's placement plans. Increasingly, operators must look for flexible and cost-effective solutions. Complete turnkey concept Ericsson have played a seminal role in the GSM story from the beginning. Starting in 1991 with the RBS 200 family of 136 Ericsson Review No. 4, 1996 radio base stations, Ericsson have worked continuously to enhance and evolve radio network technology. The new RBS 2000 family (Ericsson's implementation of base transceiver stations, BTS) makes the most of VLSI technology, miniaturisation and state-of-the-art ASIC design. With the RBS 2000 family, site space is reduced and site ownership costs are cut. In addition, reliability and in-service performance are improved. The low site acquisition and preparation costs, the rapid installation and commissioning - typically in just one hour - and minimised maintenance requirements result in reduced overall life-cycle costs. Together these make the RBS 2000 family an attractive choice for expanding cellular network operators. RBS 2000 is a complete concept: a one-cabinet turnkey solution for both outdoor and indoor installations. It offers high capacity and stable radio network control functionality. Indoors, it minimises footprint, noise, and heat generation. The transceiver architecture of RBS 2000 supports a wide choice of network topologies and configurations, offering flexible system roll-out options for the operator. RBS 2000 is completely preassembled, software-downloaded and fully tested at the factory before delivery. Enhanced radio base station technology meets mass-market needs In meeting the new requirements of the mass market, four key areas are especially important: competitive cost, higher capacity, increased and focused coverage, and improved voice quality. Increased cost-effectiveness In today's competitive environment, key business aims of every GSM operator include achievingthe lowest cost per subscriber, and reducing operating costs in Fig. 2 Ericsson's small, light-weight RBS offers flexible, and virtually invisible placement. The new micro RBS offers increased channel capacity and coverage in limited areas and represents leading-edge radio technology. Box A Abbreviations ALNA Antenna-mounted low-noise amplifier ASIC Application-specific integrated circuit BSC Base station controller BSS Base station system BTS Base transceiver station DCS Digital cellular system ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute GSM Global system for mobile communications ISDN Integrated services digital network MSC Mobile switching centre OSS Operations support system PCS Personal communications system PROM Programmable read-only memory PSTN Public switched telephone network RBS Radio base station TDMA Time-division multiple access VLSI Very large scale integration Ericsson Review No. 4, Fig. 3 GSM network infrastructure with switching system (SS) and base station system (BSS). general. The RBS 2000 family of radio base stations (Box B) reduces maintenance costs, and minimises loss of revenue caused by base station downtime. This is accomplished through extensive supervision, in combination with fewer replaceable units in the base station. Both indoor and outdoor models are based on the same modular units. This makes the base stations very cost-effective in terms of maintenance. In addition, built-in unit redundancy supports reconfiguration in case of faults. The result is minimised fault impact and less downtime. Should a hardware failure make a visit to the site necessary, an indicator points out the faulty unit. The unit is then replaced on site in less than 15 minutes. Furthermore, battery backup guarantees that the radio base station will operate without any loss of traffic in environments with unstable power supply. The small size of Ericsson's RBS 2301 micro base station minimises the site cost. In addition, the micro-rbs has a number of antenna options which means that high antennas on the building can be avoided. This results in substantial savings in rental charges and cabling costs. BoxB Model description The RBS 2000 family comprises four radio base station models: RBS 2101, RBS 2102, RBS 2202, and RBS The RBS 2101 is an outdoor or indoor self-contained cabinet with up to two transceivers. It can be configured for omnidirectional cells, or up to three sectorised cells (with more than one cabinet). The flexible design offers the opportunity for a number of configurations and expansions as the network grows. There are different climate solutions for different environments. The RBS 2101 can be wallmounted, installed at ground level or on a roof. The RBS 2102 is an outdoor self-contained cabinet with up to six transceivers. It can be configured for omnidirectional cells, or up to three sectorised cells. The flexible design offers the opportunity for a number of configurations and expansions as the network grows. The RBS 2102 can be wall-mounted or installed at ground level or on a roof. The RBS 2202 is an indoor cabinet with up to six transceivers. It can be configured for omnidirectional cells, or up to three sectorised cells. The flexible design offers the opportunity for a number of configurations and expansions as the network grows. The RBS 2202 can be installed in any indoor environment. RBS 2301, the micro-rbs, is a cabinet for outdoor or indoor installation. It is used to increase capacity and for fill-in coverage for hot-spot areas, such as shopping malls. The RBS 2301 supports macrocells (when installed above roof-top level or on antenna masts), microcells (when installed on poles orwalls), and indoor picocells. It offers a wide range of omnidirectional and directional antenna solutions. The micro-rbs can be configured in different colours for the best placement. It takes one person a few minutes to install the RBS It can be mounted on an exterior or interior wall, or on a pole beyond the reach of vandals. In fault situations, the entire unit can be removed and replaced. 138 Ericsson Review No. 4,1996 Fig. 4 The highly graphic OSS user interface offers easy access to information on network performance - even to the level of individual radio base stations. The operations support system, OSS, continuously monitors and controls all GSM system functions, resulting in smooth and disturbance-free operation. The OSS plays a key role in the maintaining and enhancement of network service quality. It provides dedicated applications, such as radio base station software, hardware and configuration management. Remote operation and maintenance (from OSS and the base station controller, BSC), together with built-in intelligence, minimises on-site visits. The installation database of the radio base station stores all network hardware data, which is easily accessible in the BSC. During software function changes, new program revisions can be transferred to the radio base station without disturbance to its operation. The installation database makes onsite fault localisation unnecessary. Hardware-related base station data that was previously accessible only on site is now obtainable in the BSC. Faulty units are detected and shown in the BSC alarm printout. When faulty units are replaced, an automatic self-test function reduces repairtime BoxC Technical specification RBS 2101 Environment Indoor/outdoor Frequency band GSM 900, DCS 1800 or PCS 1900 Number of transceivers 1-2 Number of sectors 1-3, with more than one cabinet Transmission inte
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