Soil Management Handbook. For The Okanagan And. Similkameen Valleys

Pages 81
Views 8

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 81
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Soil Management Handbook For The Okanagan And Similkameen Valleys N.A. Gough, P.Ag. G. A. Hughes-Games, P.Ag. D. C. Nikkel, AscT Resource Management Branch Province of British Columbia B.C. Ministry of
Soil Management Handbook For The Okanagan And Similkameen Valleys N.A. Gough, P.Ag. G. A. Hughes-Games, P.Ag. D. C. Nikkel, AscT Resource Management Branch Province of British Columbia B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food st Edition Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data Gough, N.A. (Neville Astor), Soil management handbook for the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys Includes bibliographical references: p. ISBN Soil management British Columbia Okanagan River Valley. 2. Soil management Similkameen River Valley (Wash. and B.C.). 3. Crops and soils British Columbia Okanagan River Valley. 4. Crops and soils Similkameen River Valley (Wash. and B.C.) I. Hughes-Games, G.A. II. Nikkel, D.C. III. British Columbia. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. IV. Title. S599.1.B7G C Preface The Soil Management Handbook for the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys has been prepared to facilitate the use of soil inventory maps and reports. The handbook provides information on the types of crops suited to the soils and climate of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys and the management inputs required to grow these crops. If more detailed information is required on soil management, contact an office of the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. It should be noted that although the authors are specialists in soil management, general comments have been made in this publication on production economics, crop suitability and crop production. These are not intended to be expert comments, but to provide the reader with a general understanding of the suitability of various climatically adapted crops. For definite information on the economics of producing or marketing a specific crop, an expert in the appropriate field of agrology should be consulted. iii Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the many people who have contributed to the publication of this Handbook. They are especially indebted to: R.A. Bertrand, P.Ag. A.B. Dawson, P.Ag. Original Draft Co-author, Director, Resource Management Branch, BCMAFF, Abbotsford Original Draft Co-author, former Soil Specialist, BCMAFF, Kelowna U. Wittneben, P.Ag. Original Draft Co-author, Soil Specialist, Contaminated Sites Unit, Industrial Waste and Hazardous Contaminants Branch, BCMELP, Victoria R. Kline, P.Ag. Soil Conservation Specialist, for Conservation Section, Resource Management Branch, BCMAFF, Prince George L. Hokanson Engineering Technician, for drawings, Resource Management Branch, BCMAFF, Abbotsford R. Bryant Engineering Technician, for drawings, Resource Management Branch, BCMAFF, Abbotsford M. Lamont Desktop Publishing Clerk, desktop publishing, Resource Management Branch, BCMAFF, Abbotsford We would also like to thank the following people for their review of this publication: J. Price, P.Ag. BCMAFF, Vernon J. Parsons, P.Ag. BCMAFF, Oliver R. Van Kleeck, P.Eng. BCMAFF, Abbotsford T. Van der Gulik, P.Eng. BCMAFF, Abbotsford G. Runka, P.Ag. G.G. Runka Land Sense Ltd., Burnaby iv Table Of Contents Page Preface...iii Acknowledgements...iv Table of Contents...v List of Soil Series... viii List of Soil Management Groups and Soils Which Comprise Each Group...ix List of Figures...x List of Tables...xi Introduction and Use of Handbook...1 Management Inputs, Crops and Soil Management Groups...5 Management Inputs and Definitions...7 Crops or Crop Groups...9 Soil Management Groups...12 Chopaka Soil Management Group...13 Gammil Soil Management Group...14 Glenmore Soil Management Group...15 Greata Soil Management Group...16 Guisachan Soil Management Group...17 Kelowna Soil Management Group...18 Keremeos Soil Management Group...19 Munson Soil Management Group...20 Osoyoos Soil Management Group...21 Postil Soil Management Group...22 Roy Creek Soil Management Group v - Table of Contents Con't. Page Rumohr Soil Management Group...24 Similkameen Soil Management Group...25 Skaha Soil Management Group...26 Stemwinder Soil Management Group...27 Summerland Soil Management Group...28 Susap Soil Management Group...29 Miscellaneous Soils...30 Miscellaneous Land Types...31 Soil Management Guide The Physical Nature of Soils Soil Composition and Soil Properties Soil Texture Soil Structure Porosity Maintaining Soil Structure and Fertility The Formation of Soil Structure Soil Structure, Degradation and Plant Growth Soil Fertility Soil Testing Plant Tissue Sampling Water Management Irrigation Water Conservation Soil Management for Erosion Control Drainage Drainage in Lowland Soils vi- Table of Contents Con't. Page 3.6 Drainage in Upland Soils Salt Affected Soils Practical Aspects of Soil Management Land Clearing, Levelling and Recontouring and Terracing Tillage and Tillage Implements Soil Loosening/Subsoiling Management of Peat and Muck Soils Soil Amendments Pesticide Use Animal Manure Management Managing Manures for Crop Production Factors Affecting Contamination from Manure Factors Contributing to High Fall Nitrate Levels in the Root Zone and Nitrate Leaching Practical Guidance on Land Application of Manure Soil Conservation Crop Rotations Cover Crops Mulching Conservation Farming...85 References...88 Published Sources...88 Personal Communication...90 Appendix A: The Climate of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys...A-1 Appendix B: Map of Reported Area and Soil Series Locations...B-1 - vii - List Of Soil Series Page Page Page Acland Creek (AC) 26 Greata (GT) 16 Paradise (PE) 26 Agar Lake (AA) 26 Greata (GT:bl)* 16 Pari (PAR)* 22 Armstrong (A) 18 Grizzly Hill (GH)* 18 Parkill (PR) 21 Armstrong (A:er)* 30 Guisachan (GN) 17 Peachland (PA) 14 Armstrong (A:sw)* 18 Harrland (HD) 18 Pentiction (P) 20 Armstrong (A:sw,cb)* 18 Hayman (HN) 18 Plaster (PLA)* 15 Bessette (BT)* 13 Haynes (HA) 21 Ponderosa (PØ) 27 Bluespring (BP)* 18 Higgins (HG) 20 Postill (PL) 22 Boucherie (BE) 15 Hullcar (HR)* 20 Priest Creek (PT) 13 Broadview (B) 15 Hupel (HU)* 27 Ratnip (RN) 27 Bullock (BK) 29 Iltcoola (IL) 30 Reiswig (RS)* 18 Burnell Lake (BL) 27 Inkaneep (IK) 23 Roy Creek (RY) 23 Cameron Lake (CNA)*(CN) 23 Kalamalka (K)* 25 Rumohr (RH) 24 Canyonview (CY) 27 Kalamalka (K:dg)* 25 Rutland (R) 14 Carlin (CN)* 20 Kalamalka (K:l)* 25 Rutland (R:er)* 30 Cawston (CA) 19 Kalamoir (KR) 20 Seaton (SE)* 14 Chapman (CH) 20 Kaleden (KA) 21 Shannon (SA) 25 Cherryville (CY)* 18 Kelowna (KE) 18 Shuswap (SH)* 21 Chopaka (CK) 13 Kendall (KD) 24 Similkameen (SM) 25 Coldstream (CS)* 25 Keremeos (K) 19 Skaha (SK) 26 Coldstream (CS:wd)* 25 Kinney (KY) 29 Snehumpton (SN) 19 Coldstream (CS:wd,ca)* 25 Kloag Pass (KG) 30 Solly (SØ) 30 Corporation (CP) 30 Knox Mountain (KN) 20 Spallumcheen (S)* 15 Coulthard (CD) 19 Lambly (LY) 20 Spallumcheen (S:gl)* 15 Darke Lake (DL) 24 Lumby (LY)* 27 Spallumcheen (S:gl,ca)* 15 Dartmouth (DH) 26 Lumby (LY:gl)* 27 Stemwinder (SW) 27 Debeck (DE) 14 Manery (MY) 27 Stepney (SY)* 21 Dub Lake (DU) 30 Maynard (MD) 30 Strutt (ST) 13 Duteau (D)* 13 McDougall (ML) 18 Summerland (SR) 28 Eaneas (ES) 22 McKinley (MK) 16 Susap (SU) 29 Ellison (EN) 14 Mission Creek (MC) 20 Swanson (SN)* 28 Enderby (EY)* 20 Moffat (MT)* 21 Swanson (SN:vp)* 28 Enderby (EY:er)* 30 Monashee (MØ)* 29 Tanaka (TA) 17 Enderby (EY:li)* 30 Munson (MU) 20 Tappen (T)* 15 Equesis (ES)* 22 Nahun (H)* 14 Tomlin (TM) 27 Faulder (FR) 22 Nahun (H:er)* 30 Trepanier (TR) 21 Fowler (FR)* 22 Nahun (H:db)* 14 Trewitt (TW)* 21 Gammil (GM) 14 Naramata (NM) 20 Trout Creek (TC) 26 Gardom (GMA)* 24 Nighthawk (NG) 19 Twin Lakes (TL) 27 Gartrell (GR) 28 Nisconlith (N)* 13 Valley Creek (VW) 16 Gellatly (GY) 20 Nisconlith (N:ca)* 13 Waby (WY:m)* 24 Giants Head (GH) 18 Nisconlith (N:p)* 24 Westbank (WK) 15 Gillanders (GS) 13 Nkwala (NK) 22 Winslow (WW) 17 Glenemma (G)* 14 Okanagan (Ø)* 24 Misc. Land Types Glenemma (G:er)* 30 O Keefe (ØK)* 21 MLA 31 Glenfir (GF) 21 Olalla (ØL) 25 MLB 31 Glenmore (GL) 15 Olhausen (ØH) 20 MLC 31 Glenmore (GL:dg)* 15 Osoyoos (Ø) 21 MLD 31 Grandview (GR)* 21 Oyama (ØY) 21 MLE 31 Grandview (GR: dg)* 21 Pandozy (PY) 27 MLF 31 MLG 31 *= indicates soils mapped in the North Okanagan only, but some map symbols are the same as in the South. NOTE: Cameron Lake has two map symbols, CNA for the North and CN for the South. - viii - List Of Soil Management Groups And Soils Which Comprise Each Group Page 1. Chopaka -Bessette (BT)*, Chopaka (CK), Duteau (D)*, Gillanders (GS), Nisconlith (N)* (N:ca)*, Priest Creek (PT) abd /Strutt (ST). 2. Gammil -Debeck (DE), Ellison (EN), Gammil (GM), Glenemma (G)*, Nahun (H)* (H:db)*, Peachland (PA), Rutland (R) and Seaton (SE)*. 3. Glenmore -Boucherie (BE), Broadview (B), Glenmore (GL) (GL:dg)*, Plaster (PLA)*, Spallumcheen (S)* (S;gl)* (S:gl,ca)*, Tappen (T)* and Westbank (WK) Greata -Greata (GT) (GT:bl)*, McKinley (MK) and Valley Creek (VK) Guisachan -Guisachan (GN), Tanaka (TA) and Winslow (WW) Kelowna -Armstrong (A)* (A:sw)* (A:sw,cb)*, Bluespring (BP)*, Cherryville (CY)*, Giants Head (GH), Grizzly Hill (GH)*, Harrland (HD), Hayman (HN), Kelowna (KE), McDougall (ML) and Reiswig (RS)* Keremeos -Cawston (CA), Coulthard (CD), Keremeos (K), Nighthawk (NG) and Snehumpton (SN) Munson -Carlin (CN)*, Chapman (CH), Enderby (EY)*, Gellatly (GY), Higgin (HG), Hullcar (HR)*, Kalamoir (KR) Knox Mountain (KN), Lambly (LY), Mission Creek (MC), Munson (MU), Naramata (NM), Olhausen (ØH) and Pentiction (P). 9. Osoyoos -Glenfir (GF), Grandview (GR)* (R:dg)*, Haynes (HA), Kaleden (KA), Moffat (MT)*, O Keefe (ØK)*, Osoyoos (Ø), Oyama (ØY), Parkill (PR), Shuswap (SH)*, Stepney (SY)*, Trepanier (TR) and Trewitt (TW)*. 10. Postill -Eaneas (ES), Equesis (ES)*, Faulder (FR), Fowler (FR)*, Nkwala (NK), Pari (PAR)* and Postill (PL) Roy Creek -Cameron Lake (CNA)*(CN), Inkaneep (IK) and Roy Creek (RY) Rumohr -Darke Lake (DL), Gardom (GMA)*, Kendall (KD), Nisconlith (N:p)*, Okanagan (Ø)*, Rumohr (RH) and Waby (WY:m)*. 13. Similkameen -Coldstream (CS)*(CS:wd)*(CS:wd,ca)*, Kalamalka (K)*(K:dg)*(K:l)*, Olalla (ØL), Shannon (SA) and Similkameen (SM). 14. Skaha -Acland Creek (AC), Agar Lake (AA), Dartmouth (DH), Paradise (PE), Skaha (SK) and Trout Creek (TC) Stemwinder -Burnell Lake (BL), Canyonview (CY), Hupel (HU)*, Lumby (LY)*(LY:gl)*, Manery (MY), 27 Pandozy (PY), Ponderosa (PØ), Ratnip ;(RN), Stemwinder (SW), Tomlin (TM) and Twin Lakes (TL). 16. Summerland -Gartrell (GR) and Summerland (SR) and Swanson (SN)*(SN:vp)* Susap -Bullock (BK), Kinney (KY), Monashee (MØ)* and Susap (SU) Miscellaneous Soils -Armstrong (A:er)*, Corporation (CP), Dub Lake (DU), Enderby (EY:er)* (EY:li)*, Glenemma (G:er)*, Iltcoola (IL), Kloag Pass (KG), Maynard (MD), Nahun (H:er)*, Rutland (R:er)* and Solly (SØ) Miscellaneous Land Types -MLA, MLB, MLC, MLD, MLE, MLF and MLG. 31 *= indicates soils mapped in the North Okanagan only, but some map symbols are the same as in the south NOTE: Cameron Lake has two map symbols, CNA for the North and CN for the South. - ix - List Of Figures Page Figure 1: Volume composition of a silt loam surface soil in good condition for plant growth 33 Figure 2: Soil texture classes. Percentages of clay and sand in the main textural classes of soil; the remainder of each is silt 34 Figure 3: Schematic drawing of root growth in well-structured and poorly-structured soil 35 Figure 4: Effect of cropping practices on soil aggregation 38 Figure 5: The effect of compaction on pore space 39 Figure 6: The effect of compaction on crop root growth 39 Figure 7: Puddling of soil particles 42 Figure 8: Effects of drainage on soil moisture 42 Figure 9: Effects of wheel traffic on soil 43 Figure 10: Bulk density profiles before and after tractor wheel passage 43 Figure 11: Schematic drawing of the effect of tillage practices on soils 44 Figure 12: Soil Sampling Methods for Orchards 46 Figure 13: X-pattern sampling method 47 Figure 14: Schematic drawing of the action of rotary cultivation 65 Figure 15: Rotary Spade 66 Figure 16: Power Harrow 66 Figure 17: Schematic drawing comparing the effect of shovel and chisel cultivation on soils 67 Figure 18: Schematic drawing of the action of disc implements 67 Figure 19: Schematic drawing of the effect of plowing on soils 68 Figure 20: Cross-section showing soil disturbance caused by subsoilers working just above and just below the critical depth 69 Figure 21: Conservation Tillage A Systems Approach 87 - x - List Of Tables Page Table1: Farm Conservation Planning 3 Table 2 Coarse Fragments 8 Table 3: Criteria for Tree Fruit Suitability 11 Table 4: The Four Main Soil Types 33 Table 5: Soil Particle Size and Characteristics 34 Table 6: Physical Characteristics of Soil Textural Groups 36 Table 7: Examples of Average Mineral Soil Bulk Densities 40 Table 8: Impact of Soil Resistance Values on Crop Yield 40 Table 9: Examples of Tissue Sampling Strategies 47 Table 10: Effective Rooting Depth of Mature Drops for Irrigaiton Systems Design 49 Table 11: Available Water Storage Capacity 49 Table 12: Availability Coefficients 50 Table 13: Maximum Design Application Rates 50 Table 14: Peak Evapotranspiration Rates for the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys 51 Table 15: Example Opportunity Days Summary 57 Table 16: Generalized Soil Profile Descriptions and Comments 60 Table 17: Drain Recommendations Based on Generalized Soil Profiles 62 Table 18: N, P and K Content of Various Manures 80 Table 19: General Cover Crop Recommendations for Soil Conservation 84 - xi - Introduction And Use Of Handbook One hundred forty-three soil series have been mapped in the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys. Many characteristics which distinguish one soil from another must be considered if agricultural crops are to be grown, whereas, other characteristics have little relevance to crop production. In this Handbook, soils having similar agriculturally important characteristics are combined into Soil Management Groups. Each group is comprised of soils with similar limitations to crop production and require similar types and levels of management inputs for successful crop production. Soils have mainly been grouped on the basis of parent material. Soil characteristics considered agriculturally important and used in forming Soil Management Groups are: soil parent material, drainage, texture, surface soil organic matter level, depth to impervious or restricting layers, stoniness, topography and salinity. For each Soil Management Group, formed after consideration of the above parameters, the Handbook provides information on limitations for agriculture, suitability of crops and management inputs required to grow various crops. There are also sections on general soil management, climate and a listing of the soil series and locations of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys. Proximity of the area covered in this handbook. This Handbook is to be used in conjunction with the detailed (1:20,000) soil maps from the soil surveys entitled Soils of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys (Ministry of Environment Technical Report #18) and the Soil Survey of the North Okanagan Valley. Included are valley bottoms and lower valley slopes from Deep Creek, northwest of Enderby, to the United States border in the Okanagan Valley, and from the Ashnola River to the United States border in the Similkameen Valley. There are several soil series that are included in the Soil Survey Report for the North Okanagan that have not been included in the mapped area. These series, therefore, will not be included in the Handbook. Soil Management Handbook Okanagan-Similkameen Valleys 1 To obtain information about the soils of a particular location, their management requirements and suited crops, the following steps should be used: Determine the soil names from the maps which accompany the above soil survey reports. Locate the pages where the soil series in question are discussed in the Handbook from the lists on pages viii and ix. Turn to the appropriate pages where information is provided on: general characteristics of the soil, dominant soil limitations for agriculture, suitability of climatically adapted crops and management inputs required to reach an acceptable level of productivity. Refer to pages 33 to 36 for more detailed of the physical nature of soils and on various soil management practices Appendix A provides details of the climate of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys. Appendix B is a detailed list of the location of the 143 soil series. Issues of soil conservation and/or soil management often arise in agriculture. The following Table 1 is a guide cross reference to determine some of the potential management solutions that can be used to deal with a specific problem. In most instances, a general discussion of the management solutions provide in the table can be found in this Handbook. 2 Soil Management Handbook Okanagan-Similkameen Valleys Soil Management Handbook Okanagan-Similkameen Valleys 3 List of Definitions for Table 1 Contour Cropping: The production of crops in rows that follow the natural contour of the land and are at right angles to the direction of the slope. Crop Rotation: Growing a variety of crops in reoccurring succession on the same land. (i.e., field vegetables followed by winter wheat, then forage grass). Cover Crop: A crop of close-growing legumes, grasses or small grains grown primarily for the purpose of soil protection and improvement between periods of regular crop production. Annual cover crops, such a cereals or annual grasses, are usually allowed to die over the winter or is killed by the use of herbicides or tillage. Permanent cover crops, such as perennial grasses or legumes, are normally managed by mowing over the growing season. Permanent cover crops protect the soil from erosion, providing organic matter to the soil and may have benefits in terms of microclimate and insect management. Forages (Perennial): Certain green crops (legumes or grasses) primarily grown and harvested to feed domestic livestock. These crops can aid in soil conservation or management of specific soil/site constraints such as stoniness or salinity. Shelterbelts: An extended line(s) or belt of living trees and shrubs established and maintained to act as a shield protecting farmland from wind erosion and crops from wind damage. Barrier Strips (Grass/Stubble): Consists of one or two rows of tall-growing grass or an annual cereal seeded every 15 to 24 metres at right angles to the prevailing wind. It may also be a strip of standing crop left taller than the adjacent crop residue. Barrier strips can protect sensitive young plants/crops from wind damage. Barrier strips may also be used to trap snow or reduce soil erosion during winter months. Residue Management: A cropping system that maintains an adequate residue cover (min. 30% surface cover) for soil erosion control and protection of the soil surface from puddling and erosion. Tolerant Crops: A crop able to grow under stressful growing conditions, such as high salinity or adverse soil physical conditions or wet sites. Animal Manure/Compost: Livestock produce nutrient-enriched liquid and solid organic waste materials which can be distributed on soils to supply essential plant nutrients and improve soil physical conditions. They must only be used as a soil conditioner or plant nutrient. Composts, like animal manures, provide nutrients, they are also excellent soil conditioners, providing stable humic forms of organic matter. Compost contain nutrients which are less readily available so application rates can be higher. Compost can also be used as a mulch. Reduced Tillage: A Tillage system where the number of field operations required for crop production are at minimum. Equipment types or modifications are used to minimize soil disturbance and maintain weed control. To delay or reduce the amount of tillage, herbicides are included in the system. For some forage production systems, tillage may be reduced to subsoiling, aeration and direct seeding. Liming: The application of agricultural lime (CaCO 3 ) or other liming material required to raise the soil ph to a desired value under specific cropping conditions. Liming may also
Related Documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!