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REVIEW OF COAGULATION Neil Harris MD Dept. of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine University of Florida College of Medicine Gainesville, FL Presented by AACC and NACB LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Describe
REVIEW OF COAGULATION Neil Harris MD Dept. of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine University of Florida College of Medicine Gainesville, FL Presented by AACC and NACB LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the specimen type used for coagulation studies 2. Understand the classic coagulation pathways. 3. Describe the set-up of the PT, PTT, fibrinogen and thrombin time assays 4. Discuss Factor activity Assays 5. Revise platelet physiology and the role of platelets in hemostasis 6. Describe and understand methods of platelet function testing in the clinical laboratory Specimen for Hemostasis Studies Whole blood drawn into a tube containing liquid 3.2% sodium citrate (109 mm) at a ratio of 9 parts blood and 1 part anticoagulant. Specimen for Coagulation studies 1) Citrated, platelet-poor plasma 2) Platelet count 10,000 mm 3 3) Clotting is initiated by adding calcium chloride back to specimen to overcome effects of citrate CALCIUM CHLORIDE Phospholipid 37 C COAGULATION Tissue damage, release of tissue factor Extrinsic Pathway Tissue Factor, Factor VII Change in charge/surface properties of vessel lining Intrinsic Pathway Factor XII, XI, IX, VIII Common Pathway Factor V, X, Prothrombin (Factor II) THROMBIN Fibrinogen 6 Fibrin Extrinsic Pathway PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT) Intrinsic Pathway aptt Common Pathway PT, aptt THROMBIN Fibrinogen Thrombin Time 7 Fibrin How long can we keep the specimen? PT - 24 hours and must be at room temperature PTT - only 4 hours and only if refrigerated at 4⁰C Frozen plasma months Prothrombin Time Add Thromboplastin, calcium chloride, then start timer 9 PT Clot formation Stop Timer International Normalized Ratio (INR) INR = (PT specimen / MNPT) ISI ISI = International Sensitivity Index; MNPT = Mean Normal Prothrombin Time: Geometric Mean of Population PT 10 Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time aptt Add Phospholipid & Silica Incubate 4 min 11 Add calcium chloride Start timer Clot formation Stop Timer Fibrinogen Fibrinogen mg/dl Time in seconds Plasma Diluted Plasma 12 Add high concentration of thrombin Clot formation Stop Timer Thrombin Time Time in seconds 13 Add Low concentration of thrombin Clot formation Stop Timer PT Sensitive to FVII & X, V, II Surrogate for warfarin therapy. Sensitive to Vitamin K Deficiency PTT Sensitive to FXII, XI, IX, VIII & X, V, II Surrogate for unfractionated heparin therapy TT Very sensitive to UFH, Direct thrombin inhibitors Sensitive to low fibrinogen. If PT or PTT are prolonged, perform a 1:1 Mixing Study 1 part patient plasma plus 1 part normal plasma 1. Correction 2. No correction 15 Range aptt is 60 seconds Examples Reference s 1:1 Mix is 35 seconds Corrected 1:1 Mix is 49 seconds NOT CORRECTED 16 Measurement of Clotting in the Laboratory Presented by AACC and NACB 1)Photo-optical detection. 2) Mechanical. 3) Chromogenic. 4) Electrochemical: Utilizes a synthetic substrate for thrombin. When this substrate is cleaved by thrombin, an electrically charged molecule is released. Detected by current flow ( amperometric ). Used by istat POC coagulation testing. Photo-optical Detection. PT & PTT End of clotting Time Viscosity-based Detection System Factor Activity Assays Presented by AACC and NACB Factor Activity In order to do a Factor assay you need:- A standard or calibrator with an exact known or defined Factor VIII (or IX etc.) factor activity concentration A commercial factor-depleted plasma lacking the exact factor you need to measure XII XII XI XI Patient Specimen IX VIII X IX X VIII- Deficient plasma V V II II I I XII XI Mix Together IX VIII The FVIII in the subsequent PTT assay is derived entirely from the patient X V II II I I ONE-STAGE FACTOR ASSAYS + = 1 part specimen 1:10 dilution 9 parts diluent STEP 1 SPECIMEN DILUTION 1:10 dilution 1:20 dilution STEP 1 SPECIMEN DILUTION 1:40 dilution Diluted specimen Single-factor deficient plasma STEP 2 MIXING ASSAY Perform PT or PTT STEP 3 Initiate clotting One-stage factor assays PTT: Factors XII, XI, IX, VIII PT: Factors VII, X, II, V A calibration curve is created, plotting TIME (seconds) as a function of FACTOR ACTIVITY. By definition, the 1:10 dilution has the activity defined by the manufacturers. 79 TIME (secs) Factor Activity (%) Presented by AACC and NACB Normal Platelet count ,000/µL Lifespan: 8-10 days 2.5 µm Mean platelet volume: 7-9 fl Mean platelet diameter: 2-3 µm Resting Platelet Resting Platelet - Disc Shaped Spherical Activated Platelet Resting Activated Subendothelial tissue vwf anchors platelets to subendothelial collagen Platelets release various agents which produce platelet aggregation. SEROTONIN ADP Thromboxane A 2 Formation of hemostatic platelet plug Thromboxane A 2 Thromboxane A 2 Prostacyclin PGI 2 Clotting factors Fibrin strands Platelets provide certain phospholipids that are essential for the coagulation process X PROTHROMBIN IXa VIIIa Xa Va THROMBIN ACTIVATED PLATELET 43 Presented by AACC and NACB Tests of Platelet function 1) Bleeding time: a controlled incision is produced in the skin and bleeding commences. The time taken until bleeding ceases is measured. 2) Platelet function analyser or PFA. 3) Platelet Aggregometer. PFA-100 Uses 0.8 ml of whole blood (Citrated; blue top) 150 micron aperture Closure time is the assay end-point Collagen and epinephrine or ADP 200 micron capillary PFA-100 Closure Times EPINEPHRINE (1 ST Cartridge) ADP (2 ND Cartridge) NSAID vwd Inherited Platelet Disorders Normal Anemia and/or Thrombocytopenia closure times! Platelet Aggregometer Add agonist Cuvette Light Source Light Detector Transmitted Light Platelet-Rich plasma 100 % Time (minutes) Whole Blood Aggregometry An AC voltage in the millivolt range is established across 2 electrodes Resistance (ohms) End Presented by AACC and NACB Self-Assessment Question #1 A specimen is drawn from a patient with an unexplained bleeding tendency. The PT is entirely within normal limits, but the PTT is very prolonged. A PTT 1:1 mix corrects completely. a) the patient has a deficiency of factor VII. b) the patient has a deficiency of factor VIII or IX. c) the prolonged PTT reflects a platelet abnormality. d) the patient lacks fibrinogen. e) The patient is deficient in factor II or V or X. Explanation: The corrected 1:1 mix indicates a factor deficiency (rather than an inhibitor) and one that affects only the PTT and not the PT. A factor VII deficiency would prolong the PT only, while a lack of II, V, X or fibrinogen would affect both the PT and PTT. Self-Assessment Question #2 A specimen for PT & PTT (sodium citrate is the additive) is noted to be less than half full with the required amount of blood. You would advise the medical technologist to: a) run the specimen anyway and report the result. b) run the specimen and divide the result by 2. c) Incubate the specimen for twice as long. d) Reject the specimen and request a redraw. e) Reject the specimen and request an EDTA tube. Explanation: Specimens for coagulation testing cannot be analyzed if the tube is inadequately filled. The specimen will be overcitrated and even overdiluted. Incubating specimens for longer or re-calculating cannot solve the problem. Self-Assessment Question #3 Which of the following does NOT describe a known action/function of platelets: a) adhesion and wound plugging b) aggregation c) synthesis of factor VIII d) release of ADP, serotonin and thromboxane e) providing an active surface for coagulation factors Explanation: Platelets are not known to synthesize factor VIII. All the other functions are associated with platelets. Platelets do contain factor V and von Willebrand factor (vwf).
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