Response to Intervention. An Alignment Guide for READ

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Response to Intervention An Alignment Guide for READ 180 Scholastic Inc. has prepared this Alignment Guide to assist Local Education Agencies (LEAs) and schools who are currently implementing or are considering
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Response to Intervention An Alignment Guide for READ 180 Scholastic Inc. has prepared this Alignment Guide to assist Local Education Agencies (LEAs) and schools who are currently implementing or are considering adopting a Response to Intervention (RTI) model. This guide provides key background information on current educational policy related to RTI, and demonstrates how READ 180 Enterprise Edition (EE) can complement and strengthen the implementation of RTI and effectively raise student achievement. This Alignment Guide provides the following key information: Response to Intervention Overview READ 180 Enterprise Edition Overview Alignment of READ 180 Enterprise Edition to RTI Core Components READ 180 EE is a research-based, intensive reading intervention program designed to meet the needs of students in grades transitional 3 and above whose reading achievement is below the proficient level. READ 180 EE: Effectively raises student achievement by delivering a systematic program of reading intervention that directly addresses individual needs through adaptive and instructional software, high-interest literature, and direct instruction in reading skills; Supplies software-generated assessment reports that can be used to develop students academic achievement goals, monitor students progress, modify direct instruction, and evaluate the effectiveness of the program; Provides professional development that is integrated into the teaching materials, and a customizable in-service and professional development plan that prepares instructors to effectively deliver the program. Using the Alignment Guide Beginning in January 2006, districts are permitted to use up to 15% of their Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds for interventions and measurements to be used within a RTI framework. This alignment guide addresses how the Scholastic READ 180 Enterprise Edition program supports and strengthens the implementation of RTI. For all questions regarding Response to Intervention services, please consult the final IDEA, Part B regulations governing the Assistance to States for Education of Children with Disabilities Program and the Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities Program. They can be found at Contents Response to Intervention (RTI)Overview...2 What is RTI?...2 The Purpose of RTI...2 IDEA 2004 Critical Points Core Components of RTI...3 READ 180 Enterprise Edition Overview READ 180 Enterprise Edition Aligns to Response to Intervention Core Components A Multitiered Intervention Model Universal Screening Scientifically Validated and Research-based Interventions Fidelity of Intervention Implementation Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress Data-based Decision Making Professional Development Appropriate Interventions for At-Risk English Language Learners Supplemental Instructional Materials CoordinatedFunding...15 Summary References Appendix: Related Research About Scholastic Inc. Scholastic is committed to providing teachers with effective materials for every stage of reading instruction to ensure that students develop the skills and strategies needed to succeed in school. Our reputation is built on an 85-year history of helping foster and support effective learning for all students. For years, we have worked with leading researchers to develop scientifically based products that produce significant results in student achievement, as well as meaningful changes in teacher effectiveness. We look forward to partnering with you to improve reading achievement, and would like the opportunity to talk with you about how we can best support your efforts to implement your Response to Intervention program. 1 Response to Intervention (RTI) Overview The information in this section of the alignment guide is informed by the IDEA 2004 Regulations, the National Association of State Directors of Education (NASDSE) 2005 Report, guidelines provided from the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at the University of Texas at Austin, and consultation from Dr. Joe Witt s isteep model on the core principles and practical implementation of RTI in schools. What is RTI? Response to Intervention is the systematic practice of: Providing increasingly intensive, high-quality instruction and intervention matched to students needs Measuring student progress over time Using resulting data to make important educational decisions RTI is not a specific program, curriculum, or model. Rather, RTI is a framework for allocating instructional services and resources in response to students needs. Scholastic READ 180 Enterprise Edition supports and complements the implementation of RTI. The Purpose of RTI is Threefold. 1. The prevention of future educational difficulties by reorienting service delivery to provide effective early intervention 2. The remediation of existing educational difficulties 3. The provision of an alternative and valid method of Learning Disabled (LD) identification and referral for Special Education services IDEA 2004 Critical Points Requires that states permit the use of RTI as part of the identification of Specific Learning Disabilities Allows states to prohibit the use of the IQ-Achievement Discrepancy model for the identification of Specific Learning Disabilities Does not allow states to require the use of the Discrepancy model Requires that RTI be only one component of the process by which children are identified for special education and related services Does not require or mandate one particular RTI model; provides the states with flexibility to adopt criteria, programs, implementation models, and professional development that best meet local needs Requires that the Special Education Eligibility Report include evidence that parents of children participating in an RTI process were informed of state policies regarding child performance data and the general education services that would be provided; strategies to support their child s rate of learning; and a parent s right to request an evaluation at any time Urges early screening and intervention for all students Recommends a multitiered intervention strategy Recommends systematic, ongoing progress monitoring of students response to highquality, research-based intervention Recommends integrating services between general and special education 2 Core Components of RTI 1. A Multitiered Intervention Model Multiple tiers of intervention allow schools to offer increasingly intensive interventions to those students who are not making adequate progress in the core curriculum (Tier I). Interventions in Tiers II and III may be intensified by increasing instructional time, decreasing group size, using materials matched to students instructional levels, modifying modes of presentation, and providing regular corrective feedback. 2. Universal Screening All students should be screened three times a year to identify those students who are not making expected academic progress. Screening measures should be brief, reliable, valid, and appropriately identify those students who require more intense interventions. 3. Scientifically Validated and Research-Based Interventions IDEA 2004 and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) require the use of research-based interventions to the extent possible. Interventions should be based on research-proven practices. In addition, the intervention should be validated by scientific efficacy studies. 4. Fidelity of Intervention Implementation The fidelity of intervention implementation must be monitored to ensure that students are receiving the intervention as designed and validated by research. Interventions should include guidelines and tools regarding implementation fidelity. 5. Frequent Monitoring of Student Progress The progress of students receiving interventions must be monitored frequently in order to determine if the interventions are producing the desired academic gains. The progress monitoring measures should be brief, target specific skills, be administered easily, and accompanied by decision rules to inform instruction. 6. Data-based Decision Making In all tiers of intervention, data from screening and progress monitoring measures should be used to make educational decisions for individual students. 7. Professional Development A high-quality professional development plan should be used to support teachers implementing RTI. The plan should allow for coaching, e-learning courses, and other opportunities. 8. Appropriate Interventions for At-Risk English Language Learners Intervention programs should include literacy instruction that targets at-risk English language learners who have not yet been identified as needing special education services. 9. Supplemental Instructional Materials The use of supplemental instructional materials, where appropriate, strengthens the efficacy of the comprehensive core curriculum and supports student learning in Tier I. 10. Coordinated Funding Components of RTI funded by IDEA may be coordinated with activities funded by, and carried out under, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). 3 Response to Intervention READ 180 Enterprise Edition Overview READ 180 Enterprise Edition is a 90-minute-a-day intensive reading program designed to meet the needs of students whose reading achievement is below the proficient level. READ 180 directly addresses individual needs through adaptive and instructional software, high-interest literature, and teacher-directed instruction in reading and writing skills and strategies. The instructional software was created as a result of more than ten years of research by experts at Vanderbilt University. Through a collaborative research effort between Vanderbilt University and the Orange County Public School System in Florida, the READ 180 prototype was used with thousands of students between 1993 and The research conclusively showed that when schools implement and follow the program s instructional model for one to two years, significant reading gains can be expected, more positive attitudes and behaviors develop, and overall higher school achievement is realized. The READ 180 Instructional Model combines research-based reading practices with the effective use of technology, offering students an opportunity to achieve reading success through a combination of instructional, modeled, and independent reading components. The READ 180 Instructional Model is designed to send a strong message that each individual is respected, supported, given choices, and can succeed. 4 An Alignment Guide for READ 180 READ 180 Enterprise Edition Aligns to Response to Intervention Core Components The following information details how Scholastic READ 180 Enterprise Edition (EE), with professional development support from Scholastic RED, addresses the Core Components of a Response to Intervention (RTI) Model. RTI 1 A multitiered intervention model with intensity of services increasing as students move up the tiers. This includes: Increased instructional time Decreased students per group Materials matched to students instructional level Modified modes of presentation Regular corrective feedback READ 180 Enterprise Edition The READ 180 EE Instructional Model includes the intensity of services as described above. The program provides intensive intervention to struggling readers through three stages of instruction: Stage A for upper elementary, Stage B for middle school, and Stage C for high school. Each stage requires a 90-minute class period that meets 5 days per week. The on-model student-teacher ratio in READ 180 is 15:1, and students get daily small-group instruction (5:1) for more targeted intervention. Within these small groups, teachers differentiate instruction based on student needs, using specific teaching methods for English language learners and students with specific learning issues. In addition, students can select reading materials at their reading level from the independent reading paperbacks using the Lexile Framework provided with READ 180. Student performance on the Scholastic Reading Inventory TM (SRI) is used to adjust the reading passages on the software to meet each individual student at his or her level. As students progress through the program, they receive regular, corrective feedback on reading, spelling, and comprehension through the READ 180 Software. READ 180 EE delivers its reading achievement gains through four core instructional activities: Individualized instructional software The READ 180 Software provides each student with customized reading instruction plus continuous assessment of his or her progress. The software has built-in supports, such as anchor videos that build background knowledge for reading passages, Universal Access Provisions, and language translations. Data-driven small-group instruction Comprehensive READ 180 EE reports provide detailed and immediate feedback to identify student needs and to inform Small-Group Instruction. 5 Response to Intervention Direct, explicit instruction in whole or small groups The READ 180 EE rbook Teacher s Edition provides for explicit instruction and scaffolded practice through research-based routines. Independent reading READ 180 provides students with an independent reading library of high-interest and leveled paperbacks, as well as grade-level Audiobooks. Quick Writes and Scholastic Reading Counts! (SRC!) are used to assess students understanding of what they have read. RTI 2 Universal screening measures that are brief, reliable, valid, and appropriately identify students for Tier II intervention READ 180 Enterprise Edition READ 180 EE continually assesses students using a variety of instruments. Students begin by taking the Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) to assess their reading levels and determine if placement in the program is appropriate. All students may be screened using SRI. The research-based assessment, the Scholastic Reading Inventory, and/or the Lexile Framework have been the subject of seven validation studies. The research ranges from a normative study with a sample of 512,224 students (Lexile Framework) to an analysis of gender, race, and ethnic differences among fourth- through ninth-grade students. The Scholastic Achievement Manager (SAM), which collects data from SRI assessments and daily READ 180 Software use, generates more than 40 detailed reports that allow teachers to identify and measure skill areas in which students require further improvement. Reports include: Student Diagnostic Report, which helps teachers to identify and prioritize students needs in comprehension, word recognition, spelling, and fluency. Student Action Report, which describes students performances and SRI test history using Lexile measure, grade equivalency, and normative data, as well as recommends how to help students meet grade-level expectations. Demographic Proficiency Report, which provides a breakdown of SRI performance according to subgroup. Proficiency Summary Report, which reports the reading performance of students within a district, school, or grade for an individual teacher, class, or group. RTI 3 Scientifically validated and research-based interventions READ 180 Enterprise Edition The READ 180 EE program and services strongly align with the 15 key elements of effective adolescent literacy programs as cited in Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2004). 6 An Alignment Guide for READ 180 The instructional software was created as a result of more than ten years of research by experts at Vanderbilt University. Through a collaborative research effort between Vanderbilt University and the Orange County Public School System in Florida, the READ 180 EE prototype was used with thousands of students between 1993 and The research conclusively showed that when schools implement and follow the program s instructional model for one to two years, significant reading gains can be expected, more positive attitudes and behaviors develop, and overall higher school achievement is realized (Taylor, 2001). Upon acquisition of the prototype, Scholastic agreed to maintain the integrity of all researchbased principles and to enhance the library of books and the ease of use of the program. More recently, Scholastic developed the READ 180 EE rbook Teaching System. The Teaching System is a print-based interactive worktext for Small- and Whole-Group Instruction that includes nine content-area Workshops focusing on key reading and writing skills. The Teaching System utilizes research-based instructional strategies and routines (Feldman, 2002; Feldman & Kinsella, 2004). These Workshops cover mostly content-area nonfiction, with a high percentage of science and social studies passages, as well as gradeappropriate, high-interest literature. Additional resources, such as the Resources for Differentiated Instruction books (RDI), the Scholastic RED Teacher Handbook, and rskills Tests provide lesson plans, instructional routines, professional development, and assessment. Reading and technology experts have written about the development of READ 180 and its effects in numerous journals. This literature includes: Struggling Middle School Readers: Successful, Accelerating Intervention (Papalewis, 2004) Literacy Instruction for Older Struggling Readers: What Is the Role of Technology? (Hasselbring & Goin, 2004) Turning the Tide (Daley & Rubin, 1999) The Computer Doesn t Embarrass Me (Hasselbring, Goin, Taylor, Bottge & Daley, 1997) Multimedia Environments for Developing Literacy in At-Risk Students (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University, 1994) Anchored Instruction and Its Relationship to Situated Cognition (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University, 1990) For more information on the READ 180 EE research base, please refer to: READ 180: A Heritage of Research Before Reading Next: READ 180, An Alignment of READ 180 and Reading Next READ 180 Aligned to NCLB These publications can be downloaded at the Web addresses listed in the References section of this guide on page 16. 7 Response to Intervention READ 180 EE has been the subject of numerous scientifically based research evaluations, including quasi-experimental, correlational, and descriptive studies. The studies report reading gains for various populations and subgroups of students, including middle and high school students, English language learners, students in special education, and Native Americans. Results from third-party evaluations show that struggling readers in READ 180 EE show progress, often substantial, in learning to read. Impressive gains are reflected on students reading scores on standardized tests, such as the Stanford Achievement Test-9 (SAT-9), TerraNova, and the Scholastic Reading Inventory. For more information on research that validates the use of READ 180 EE, please refer to the Appendix on page 17 and to RTI 4 An intervention with fidelity of implementation guidelines that can be evaluated through reporting or observational measures READ 180 Enterprise Edition Ongoing evaluations reveal strong correlations between the quality of implementation and the desired achievement outcomes. The Research and Validation Department at Scholastic developed a READ 180 Research Protocol and Tools guide that includes a detailed READ 180 Observation Protocol that links to the READ 180 Implementation Checklist. The checklist includes ten key indicators for evaluation of the quality of implementation. This implementation checklist and an abbreviated version of the Observation Protocol have also been made available in the READ 180 Leadership Implementation Guide. RTI 5 Use of frequent and brief progress monitoring assessments with decision rules that inform instruction READ 180 Enterprise Edition READ 180 EE provides continuous assessment and immediate feedback for students and teachers. READ 180 EE contains assessments for initial screening, diagnostic placement, progress monitoring, and pro
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