Plaq Alternatives Lies (En)

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LEES ALTERNATIVES Maturation, Refining, Finishing MATURING ON FINE LEES, THE LEGACY OF YEAST Maturing wine on its fermentation lees is an oenological However, this…
LEES ALTERNATIVES Maturation, Refining, Finishing MATURING ON FINE LEES, THE LEGACY OF YEAST Maturing wine on its fermentation lees is an oenological However, this method of maturation is not without risks, practice with numerous recognised benefits: in that the quality of the lees is extremely variable: • Contribution to the balance of flavour, with reduced • Depending on the strain of yeast: some are particularly sensations of dryness, bitterness or astringency, and a useful in fermentation but distinctly less so in terms role in the positive dimensions such as body, roundness, of maturation (weak autolytic capacity, few free active sweetness and length on the palate compounds such as mannoproteins…) • Development of complexity of aroma • Depending on the conditions of fermentation, the yeast’s past: most yeasts retain residual sulphite reductase • Stabilisation of the active compounds in the wine and activity likely to form unwanted sulphurous odours. They improvement of the colloidal balance may also overwhelm some fruity odours and restrict the • Attenuation of unwanted sulphurous odours freshness of wines, according to their composition • Influence on the reduction and preservation of oxygen. • Depending on the microbial contamination of the must, then the wine: the lees sometimes contain the transforming microorganisms such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis. This is why the R & D department at IOC (Institut Œnologique de Champagne) has developed formulations derived from yeast as alternatives to fermentation lees: inactivated yeasts and yeast mannoproteins. Each alternative has been selected to optimise one or several of the oenological properties of lees, while eliminating the uncertainty associated with them.Through the choice of yeast and the conditions of growth and inactivation, there are multiple possibilities that allow for a wide variety of « lees alternatives » adapted for different production objectives. Oenological properties of yeast fractions NUCLEIC ACIDS: • Flavour MANNOPROTEINS: • Volume / Roundness • Persistence of aroma • Longevity of aroma • Stabilization AMINO ACIDS AND PEPTIDES: • Smoothness • Sweetness • Bitterness MINERALS: • Flavour (salinity, minerality, CELL WALL: bitterness) • Adsorption 02 LEES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO WINE QUALITY FROM PRECISION MATURATION TO TARGETED FINISHING: STRONGLY DIFFERENTIATED ALTERNATIVES The sensory impact and the speed of action of each yeast then control the speed and selectivity of the release lees alternative depend on its past and the choices that of the different yeast compounds into the wine (alternatives determined its selection. of the SPHERE type). Extraction and purification also allow for more precise targeting of specific classes of molecules, The strain of yeast determines its potential for greater or such as mannoproteins (alternatives of the ultiMA® type), lesser release of certain compounds, a capacity that is making them instantly active and soluble in the wine, for modulated to an equal extent by the yeast’s conditions of finishing rather than maturation. growth. The timing and the method of inactivation of the Conditions of growth Qualitative and Yeast quantitative potential of lees alternative strain Parameters of inactivation (timing, temperature…), Speed of release formulation (granulometry) and selection of and/or extraction released compounds and purification Whole Diversity Formulations inactivated of the lees rich in yeasts alternatives mannoproteins Gradual Instant taste impact taste impact Complexity of Impact on intensity aroma SPHÈRE BLANC ULTIMA SOFT ® of aroma SPHÈRE ROUGE ULTIMA® FRESH SPHÈRE EXPRESS 03 A RECOGNISED IMPACT ON WINE TEXTURE Released 160 6 Released proteins The lees enrich the wine with the essential compounds polysaccharides Bradford eq.BSA CPG / IR (mg/L) 140 5 (mg/L) of their cell wall: polysaccharides and especially 120 mannoproteins. These compounds reinforce the sensations 100 4 of volume in the mouth, body and roundness, and research 80 3 60 has attributed to some of them the property of reducing 2 IOELEV1 2 1 40 the wines’ astringency. This is thought to be due to the 1 20g/hL 1 IOELEV1 2 50g/hL 20 50g/hL interactions between certain yeast polysaccharides and the most reactive tannins. Certain large yeast proteins SPHÈRE 1 SPHÈRE (>15 KDa) are also found to be excellent fining agents for BLANC BLANC astringent polyphenols. 1 20g/hL 50g/hL 2 50g/hL In order to select the most convincing lees alternatives to 2 contribute to the quality and texture of the wines, IOC has first of all sought to define the sensory dimensions of « volume » and « body ». In collaboration with the Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation (Centre for Sciences Active compounds released in the wine by of Taste and Food), a research unit in Dijon well-known for different lees alternatives (IOELEV1 and SPHÈRE BLANC) its work on sensory analysis, we have been able to establish in hydro-alcoholic solution at 12%, pH 3.5, 25°C, 15 days’ contact how these two variables can be conceptualised by tasters. with light stirring Using descriptors validated in sample tests on wines matured in the presence of lees alternatives, IOC has been able to sift different inactivated yeasts to retain those that correspond best, according to the panel of tasters, with improvement in the sensations of body and roundness of white wine or volume in the mouth of red wine. SELECTION OF A LEES ALTERNATIVE THAT REINFORCES SENSATIONS OF BODY AND ROUNDNESS Compared to the other inactivated yeasts evaluated, SPHÈRE Blend for basic wine 8 Chardonnay BLANC offers a higher aptitude for releasing proteins and, 7 6 although slightly weaker, for releasing total polysaccharides. 5 SPHÈRE BLANC 4 However, the sample marks given by the tasting panel Control 3 show a stronger capacity of SPHÈRE BLANC to improve the 2 1 perceived body and roundness, while increasing the level of appreciation of the wine. Besides the quantity, it is therefore also the quality of the +25% compounds released which reflects the interest of an Body and alternative to lees in relation to a determined sensory Roundness +20% objective. Average tasting marks Panel of 22 professional tasters WORKING ON VOLUME AND STRUCTURE: EVALUATION OF A LEES ALTERNATIVE SPECIFICALLY FOR RED WINES The particular interest of the SPHÈRE ROUGE inactivated Volume 59 39 yeast is its capacity to release small polysaccharides. Soon after the beginning of maturation (4 weeks) and up to 10 months of contact, red wines matured with this alternative 69 39 offer more volume in the mouth, but also more structure Structure and balance, thanks to the interactions between these polysaccharides and the wine tannins. Balance 79 29 SPHÈRE ROUGE : Volume and structural balance Trial at 20 g/hL on cabernet sauvignon, médoc (10 months’ contact) - 9 tasters Preference 79 29 SPHÈRE ROUGE Control 04 A DECISIVE EFFECT ON TASTE Certain constituants released by the lees are described as having an impact on the fundamental flavours such as sweetness, bitterness, acidity, or on the salinity of the wines. According to the characteristics and the stages of acquisition of the lees alternatives, it is possible to mature the wines in the direction of one or other of these dimensions. Acidity Acidity Results of sensory Persistence Roundness / Persistence Roundness / analysis on trial wines of aromas sweetness of aromas sweetness 1 White wine - Gros plant 2 Red wine - Côtes du Rhône 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 UltiMA® Soft at 10 g/hL UltiMA® Soft at 15 g/hL Bitterness Salinity Bitterness Salinity Control 1 2 Dryness Dryness Sensory analysis - Impact on red crop of high maturity (Significance threshold 90%) Merlot - Gironde – 14.5% vol. Freshness 69 29 79 39 Bitterness in the mouth Balance of 59 Persistence 69 49 39 structure of aromas Sweetness 59 49 Preference 69 39 Salinity 59 49 UltiMA® Fresh at 10 g/hL Control UNDER-ESTIMATED EFFECTS ON AROMATIC PERCEPTION Yeasts, long after they have stopped fermenting, continue Intensity of aroma* to exercise a significant influence on the aroma of wines during maturation on lees. The yeast mannoproteins are likely to interact with the aroma compounds through both hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds. These interactions can increase the volatility of certain aromas, enhancing, or conversely diminishing, their olfactory perception, thus improving the length on the palate and the Floral* Fruity* durability of the aromas during the storage time of the wine. Certain esters, amino acids and nucleic acids from the lees are also described as flavour agents, contributing to the aromatic expression and complexity of the wines. SPHÈRE BLANC Not stirred control According to their charactistics, these effects can be found in Stirred control certain lees alternatives. During selection, care will be taken Length on the palate to avoid the masking of fruity aromas sometimes attributed to lees, and in fact to optimise their perception. Effects of lees alternatives (SPHÈRE BLANC) on aroma development Chardonnay – matured 10 months. Average marks given by the 7 panelists. Différences significant at 5% are indicated by a *. 05 LEES AND CONTRIBUTION TO QUALITY OF WINE CHOOSING THE MOST SUITABLE ALTERNATIVE SPHÈRE BLANC END OF • Soft inactivation • Micro-flakes lightly toasted SPHÈRE BLANC / ROUGE: minimum 4-8 weeks ALCOHOLIC Volume in Body and the mouth Roundness FERMENTATION Full Coating Complexity Structural maturity of excessive and stabilisation quality aroma acidity of aromas MATURATION SPHÈRE ROUGE Body and • Soft inactivation Volume SPHÈRE EXPRESS • Small polysaccharides • High free mannoprotein content • Rapid release of intracellular content SPHÈRE EXPRESS: 1 to 4 weeks REFINING Structural Freshness quality in the mouth Freshness Contribution Attenuation of aroma to salinity of dryness ULTIMA® FRESH and taste • Very high free mannoprotein content PRE-IMPLEMENTATION OR PRE-FILTRATION FINISHING ULTIMA® SOFT Coating Longevity Coating • Very high free acidity of aroma bitterness mannoprotein content 06 LEES AND PROTECTION OF WINE QUALITY CHOOSING THE MOST SUITABLE ALTERNATIVE GLUTAROM EXTRA • Very high reduced glutathione content • Specially designed for vinifications with low sulphite content • Optimal stimulation of wines’ richness GLUTAROM in glutathione • Better protection over time • Protection during pre-fermentation phase and start of AF • Contribution to aroma development (esters and thiols) Dy na mi se the aromas START OF FERMENTATION NETAROM® • Fixing and use of NETAROM® EXTRA wines’ residual copper • Rich in fixed copper • For light reductions and • For more robust respect of fruity thiols reductions Di s- co ve ry our wine END OF FERMENTATION MATURATION Neta rom ® Neta rom ® 07 LEES AND PROTECTION OF WINE QUALITY LEES TO ELIMINATE SULPHUROUS ODOURS From an oenological point of view, the cell walls of the A yeast offer particularly interesting absorption properties.The capacity to absorb different molecules such as polyphenols, SH S–S–R toxic fatty acids or even residues of phytopharmaceutical R–SH / [O2] Yeast products has been ascribed to them. This potential action cell wall is very variable, according to the strain of yeast and its past. DTT–SH More recently, studies have revealed yeast lees’ property of fixing unwanted sulphurous compounds, responsible for so-called reduction odour and tastes. This phenomenon with R = Et or Me is all the more interesting for the practitioner if it is not accompanied by dryness or the oxidation risks associated B H with copper treatment. S S–S–R Cu–R The hypothetical method of action involves 2 phenomena: Yeast R–SH / [O2] cell wall • The mercaptans attach themselves directly to the sulphur groups present on the surface of the yeast cell wall. DTT–SH • The copper in the wine is trapped by the sulphur groups, with R = Et or Me then the mercaptans attach themselves. Hypotheses of mechanisms of elimination of mercaptans by lees (after Vasserot et al, 2010) IOC has selected a lees alternative, NETAROM®, whose capacity to absorb unwanted sulphur groups is particularly developed, due especially to a high potential for fixing the copper present in the wine. IOC has also confirmed the interest of implementing an inactivated yeast particularly rich in immobilised copper, NETAROM® EXTRA. This lees alternative offers the interest of not being dependent on the presence of copper in the wine to demonstrate efficacity. Reduction / nose 30 Comparison of Aromatic 3 treatments intensity in 20 Metallic on syrah the mouth 10 Netarom (30 g / hL) Netarom Extra (30 g / hL) Control Reduction Fruity / nose / mouth Volume / body 08 LEES, PROTECTIVE AGENTS AGAINST OXYGEN The lees’ aptitude to protect wines from oxidation is empirically known by wine practitioners. However, in recent years scientific knowledge has In addition to the direct provision of glutathione released by enabled us to explain this protective capacity of yeast the lees alternatives, we now know that there are positive lees, expecially as regards their content of antioxidant interactions between the alternatives and the active yeasts compounds. in the fermenting must. We therefore usually recommend adding inactivated yeasts at the start of fermentation – They can in fact be particularly rich in glutathione, a coupled with complementary organic nutrition – so as to tripeptide with a strongly antioxidant action, which they benefit from these interactions which yield distinctly higher release into the wine. levels of glutathione in the wines than later additions. However, yeast lees are equally likely to have residual IOC has therefore developed lees alternatives rich in sulphite reductase activity which can result in the formation glutathione, the GLUTAROM range, to be integrated into the of unwanted sulphurous odours. early stages of the vinification process, so as to contribute The interest in working with lees alternatives, offering the to the wine’s stability as regards oxygen. protective advantages of lees without their disadvantages, is therefore obvious. Dynamics of storage in air 0,700 in low sulphite conditions 0,600 Absorbance at 420 nm Absorbances of 450 nm - Chardonnay 2014 0,500 Measure post AF after addition of sulphite 0,400 Sulphite levels: on must: 0 g / hL – wine after AF+ before bottling: 0.4 g / hL 0,300 0,200 0,100 GLUTAROM EXTRA 0,000 Control 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time of exposure to air (in days) 3,00 Sauvignon Chardonnay 2014 2,50 2014 Impact of addition 2,00 of GLUTAROM EXTRA at the start of alcoholic 1,50 fermentation on the reduced 1,00 glutathione content of wine 0,50 GLUTAROM EXTRA Control +305% +30% 09 FA T S he inactivated yeasts (SPHERE, tarting from living oenological yeast cream, widely differing yeast Is it NETAROM®, GLUTAROM) are fractions can be obtained: insoluble compounds and the necessary to wine must therefore be racked and/or • Through simply soft drying, dry active oenological yeast can be obtained, which can bring about alcoholic fermentation. rack after use? filtered to eliminate insoluble fractions. What is the impact Conversely, ultiMA® formulations are 100% soluble in oenological • Through treatment, such as thermal, inactivated yeasts can be obtained whose composition remains rich in macromolecules of sensory interest of filtration? conditions of use and can be (mannoproteins and other polysaccharides) but varies according used just before implementation to the conditions of acquisition (strain, growth conditions, softness of without the need to rack. In all inactivation…), giving a wide diversity of lees alternatives. cases, the effects produced by the inactivated yeasts, as by ultiMA®, will not be lost through filtration. • Use of enzymatic autolysis gives a yeast autolysate. This is much more fragmented than inactivated yeast, and a large proportion of the macromolecules has become segmented into smaller molecules.These autolysates are excellent nutrients (rich in amino acids, for example). • Separation of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the yeast autolysate distinguishes the yeast extract, which is the internal content of the yeast (not authorised in oenology), and the yeast cell wall (or hull).This purified cellular envelope, which offers interesting absorption properties, is totally What is different from inactivated yeast, which contains both the cell wall and the an inactivated yeast? intra-cellular environment. How does it differ • Mannoprotein formulations are obtained by extraction and purification starting from the yeast cream; they do not contain the other constituants from yeast hull or of either the yeast cell wall or the intracellular content. mannoprotein? Lees alternatives among other yeast fractions Extraction Yeast Soft Purification cream drying Inactivation Autolysis Protein extracts, Inactivated Yeast Active Mannoproteins yeasts autolysate dry yeast IN S Separation Separation TE RO CT RO P S TEIN M A N N OP E XTR A Sphère Blanc Glutarom Yeast Sphère Rouge Yeast Glutarom Extra cell wall extract Sphère Express (=hull) Netarom® UltiMA® Soft Netarom® Extra UltiMA® Fresh 10 Q. S T ensory analyses carried out at his will depend on the lees alternative used. UltiMA® Are the different intervals show that the has no impact on colour, for example. GLUTAROM, while organoleptic benefits of the conveying protection against oxidation, could tend to sensory effects SPHERE range of inactivated yeasts and favour colour preservation. If some fresh lees absorb pigments stable over of the mannoproteins contributed and reduce colour intensity, in this area the impact of lees time? by ultiMA® last over time. alternatives in oenological doses seems distinctly more anecdotal. What is the optimal What is the I t is considered that 90% of the desired benefits maturation time impact of lees are obtained with SPHÈRE ROUGE or SPHÈRE BLANC after 4 to 8 weeks. For SPHÈRE EXPRESS, with the SPHERE alternatives on this is reduced to 1 to 2 weeks.There is no contra- range? colour? indication in keeping the lees alternative in A contact with the wine for longer. lthough some manno- proteins do in fact have a positive action on tartaric stability, the use of ultiMA® alone does not remove the Should T he use of ultiMA® products necessity of using ultiMA® be used in association with certain other stabilisation Since ultiMA® is methods in regard to alone or can it be tannins regularly gives excellent results, thanks to the these precipitations. mannoprotein-based, used in conjunction complementarity of their do I therefore not need with other sensory actions, but they can products? perfectly well be used alone, to stabilise my wines according to the desired aim. in relation to tartaric Won’t precipitation? the use of T he glutathione released by GLUTAROM is a powerful antioxidant, but does not in itself produce the unwanted sulphurous odour GLUTAROM reduce known as reduction odour. Moreover, unlike some fresh lees, the complexity GLUTAROM does not produce residual enzymatic activity that reduces H2S into sulphites.Although it is true that the glutathione of the wine? retains its potential to protect some sulphurous compounds in relation to oxidation, as it protects varietal thiols, we have not observed Why should « reduction off-flavours » increased by the use of GLUTAROM. wine not be left in contact with O ur trials have shown that a desorption NETAROM® for more C ertainly! In phenomenon some- than 5 days? Can some cases, the times occurred after several days, complementary meaning that the cell walls of NETAROM® et actions of these two NETAROM® may end up releasing NETAROM® EXTRA lees alternatives eliminates sulphurous compounds more the adsorbed compounds. Although this risk is not systematic, it is still preferable to rack be used efficiently. the wine sooner than with fining. However, it is also possible to manage the duration of contact through tasting. together? Why should T sulphite not be here is not necessarily any con
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