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1 / 38 Overview of Presentation: Part I: DoBeS Project Languages of Southwest Ambrym Part II: A few facts about Daakie Sound System Basic clause pattern Agreement system Nominal constructions: Possession,
1 / 38 Overview of Presentation: Part I: DoBeS Project Languages of Southwest Ambrym Part II: A few facts about Daakie Sound System Basic clause pattern Agreement system Nominal constructions: Possession, relational and transitive nouns Transitivity with verbs Verb serialization Part III: The modal markers 2 / 38 PART I: DoBeS Project: Languages of Southwest Ambrym About the project: July 2009 September 2013, funded by VolkswagenFoundation, site housed at Max Planck for Psycholinguistics, Kilu von Prince (Linguistics) special thanks for in-depth discussion, dissertation Soraya Hosni (Anthropology) upcoming dissertation, kinship. Susanne Fuchs (Phonetics), Lena Karvovskaya (Technical support). Three languages: Daakaka, Daakie, Dalkalaen; also, there was a project on North Ambrym (Michael Franjieh, SOAS, Rausig Found.) Each language ~ 1000 speakers, actively spoken, learned by children, but potential threats (among others, Bislama loans, volcanoes, mobile phones...). Tasks, among others: Documentation of communication (~ 20 hours of transcribed materials): The Language Archive: Grammar, dictionaries: von Prince, A grammar of Daakaka: Text collections in Daakaka, Dalkalaen, Daakie (via Amazon): 3 / 38 Projects of the DoBeS program 4 / 38 Vanuatu / Ambrym: Geography and languages -- population: 290, about 100 languages (Austronesian) -- Melanesian Pidgin English (Bislama) -- English, French Ethnologue on Ambrym: -- Southeast Ambrym -- North Ambrym -- Lonwolwol (now nearly extinct) -- Dakaka (Daakaka) -- Port Vato (Daakie) 5 / 38 Ambrym: Geography and languages North- Ambrym Orkon Lonwolwol Dalkalaen Daakaka Daakie (Port Vato) Southeast- Ambrym 6 / 38 Ambrym: Sand Drawing by Sam Tasso 7 / 38 Tangible results: Daakie Dictionary ( 2000 lemmata) 8 / 38 Tangible results: Custom Story collection The two brothers and the redhead bird Daakie texts: Fables, Fairy Tales, History, Customs, Personal History 9 / 38 Tangible results: Children s book 10 / 38 Tangible results: Bible stories for children In preparation: Translation of Fables by Aesop, European fairytales School books for first alphabetization 11 / 38 Distribution of books in Port Vato, July / 38 DoBeS Project on Southwest Ambrym Public Appearances Exhibition Sanddrawing, Humboldtbox Berlin 13 / 38 Part II: A few facts about Daakie Previously known as Port Vato (Tryon 1976; Ethnologue). About 1000 speakers; larger villages: Lonmei, Port Vato (Langievot), Lalinda. Contact with Daakaka and Dalkalaen to the west; fewer contacts to North Ambrym or Southeast Ambrym. Previous literature: Some information in William Paton, Ambrym (Lonwolwol) grammar, Dissertation Australian National University 1952, published 1971 Word list in Tryon (1976) 14 / 38 Sound System of Daakie / 38 Basic clause pattern, Paradigm of pronouns and subject markers 20 / 38 Paradigm of subject markers, pronouns, and modal markers. 21 / 38 Number marking Elaborate number marking with pronouns and possessives: Singular, Dual, Paucal, Plural see above Uses of dual: When referring to two entities: kolo-m loko kolom van 3.DU-RE walk 3.DU-RE go the two of them walked on When referring to a respected person, e.g. brother of mother, child of sister: Use of paucal: Referring to a group that one identifies with, regardless of size. Use of plural includes impersonal reference, cf. Engl. they, German man, French on 22 / 38 Number requirements of verbs Some verbs have number requirements on their arguments, typically singular/dual vs. paucal/plural. Number requirement on subject argument: pwet / du be there muet / tisi fall down soaa / pisyah arrive Number requirement on object argument: idi / sógo take, hold koselaane / koseleene chase away 23 / 38 Possessive markers Possessive markers: Three classes (a reduced system compared to other languages) mok class: related to the house, to drinks, e.g. mok dyung my mat mok we my water mok vyoh my coconut (for drinking) ok class: related to food, animals, food-related implements e.g. ok meleh my food ok kulu my dog ok yo my knife ok dom my yam / year sok class: the general class for the rest, e.g. sok timaleh my child, sok too my garden, sok tyenem my village Paradigm (sok class): Possessive markers as possessive linkers: dyung me Meri Mary s mat meleh e Meri Mary s food timaleh se Meri Mary s child Possessive marker as conjunction : Meri son John Mary with John 25 / 38 Relational constructions: relational nouns Relational nouns are inflected for possessor Example: nur/nar- child Observe: Inflection similar to possessive marker; hence: possessive markers are general relational nouns; this explains why they precede their noun (sok too my garden, not *too sok), contrary to other modifiers. and it explains the absolute use of possessive markers, e.g. nam idi ok I took mine, I took my food Semantic domains of relational nouns: Kinship terms (with exceptions; naana mama replaces 1 st person singular in laas-) Body parts (with the exception of most inner organs) Bodily excretions There are about 50 relational nouns in the current dictionary. 26 / 38 Relational constructions: Transitive nouns Transitive nouns require a DP that satisfy their argument position: biri popat biri popat kele head.of pig head.of pig that pig s head that pig s head Examples (there are about 70 transitive nouns in the current dictionary): Parts: head, hand, leg, eye, elbow, face, tail, body, belly stem, leaf, root, shoot, branch, fruit, juice, thorn, seed top, core, piece, front, middle, remains one, the other (of two) Collections: bundle, bunch, drop, hole, group, heap Entity coming from origin: voice, offspring, egg, heat (of sun), person (from) Function: rope (e.g. for pigs), place (e.g. for soccer) mother, also big : laasi vanten mother of the man, very big man Example for relational, transitive, absolute noun: biry-on his head mer-an his eye vel-an his hand biri head of mere eye, core of vele hand of birikot head mát eye vyaa hand biri popat kele biryon popat kele that pig s head the head of that pig Transitivization with preposition ne, similar for verbs: da ne ngyo yaapuo soo ne ot yurop blood TR 1.sg my blood man one TR place Europe a man from Europe 27 / 38 Verbs: intransitive, transitive Intransitive / transitive verb pairs: Irregular verb pairs, e.g. en / ane eat min / mini drink pinin / páne roast pyen / vini shoot peap / pepa carry (a child) kii / ili dig gerehe be a liar / gerehe deceive, tee look / lehe see Regular verb pairs, derived with suffix (preposition) ne e.g. lip drip / lipne pour Derived verbs with verb suffixes e.g. kii dig kii-kuu dig out Examples: 28 / 38 Semitransitive verbs and ditransitive verbs But intransitive verbs sometimes occur with an object: Here, kon does not refer to specific corn, rather: they were corn-roasting. Interpretations: páne: λyλx[x roasts y] == transitive reading, objects of type e pinin: a. λpλx y[x roasts y P(y)] semi-transitive reading, objects of type e,t b. λx y[x roasts y] intransitive reading, no object equivalent to leaving P unspecified Not every intransitive verb can be used as semitransitive, e.g. baa fight, but arguments can sometimes be extended, e.g. with preposition mane: Ditransitive verbs: Second object provided with mane 29 / 38 Experiencer verbs Experiencer subjects: Realized as regular subjects: Realized with dummy subjects referring to body parts: 30 / 38 Serial verb constructions Complex verbs, suffixes, sometimes used as separate verbs, no separate inflection ta-bini cut dead kyet-bini bite dead resultative interpretation gum-gare hold tight yep-gare pull-tight intensive interpretation en-lehe eat-see, try syep-lehe cut-see conative interpretation kuoli-mee return come loko-van walk go goal interpretation Aspectual verb serialization, e.g. progressive: du progressive, du continuative, buk first Event-related verb serialization (3 rd sg., predication on event), cf. Davidsonian event argument 31 / 38 Part III: A closer look at modal markers New project: Kilu von Prince, Manfred Krifka: The Expression of Tempus, Aspect, Modality and Polarity in Melanesian Languages MelaTAMP) (DFG, ) Paradigm of modal markers, illustrated with 3 rd plural, 3 rd singular At the root of this system: Distiction Realis / Irrealis (Actualis / Potentialis) Often: Nonfuture (Past / Nonpast) vs. Future distinction Better characterized as (cf. Lichtenberk 1983 on Manam, Roberts 1990 on Amele): event/state taking place or having taken place vs. envisioned or imagined For typological and semantic correlations of the realis / irrealis distinction cf. J.R. Elliott 2002, de Haan 2012 Newly acquired project von Prince / Krifka, MelaTAMP Purpose here: Overview of uses of modal markers in Daakie (Some ideas about modeling the semantics of these markers 32 / 38 Use of modal markers: Realis in non-embedded sentences Ongoing events: Past events: Generic statements: Fictional worlds: 33 / 38 Use of modal markers: Realis in embedded clauses Complement of factive propositional attitude verbs, complementizer: ke Reason clauses: Temporal clauses: 38 Use of modal markers: Potentialis in non-embedded sentences. In commissive clauses: In jussive clauses: In directive clauses (imperatives /necessitives: Give me / You must give me) Future reference with prefix a- to subject marker (in Daakie, not in Daakaka: complementizer ka) desoo: indefinite quantifier in non-realis contexts; in realis contexts: soo one ; cf. Pearce 2010 for Unua 35 / 38 Use of modal markers: Potentialis in embedded clauses Non-factive complement clauses; irrealis complementizer ka, contrast with realis ke. Non-factive temporal clauses, cf. German als / wenn Content of thought often expressed as direct speech. 36 / 38 Use of modal markers: Distal modality Indicating time at which an event happened: Temporal scene setters in discourse: Adjectival predication, restricted to the stem -bo big Content of false thoughts: 37 / 38 Modality in conditional clauses Irrealis in protasis of indicative conditionals, future in apodosis. Distal in protasis of future-oriented conditional, future in apodosis: Distal in protasis and apodosis of counterfactual conditional: 38 / 38 Realis Negation Negation marker -r n negated root clauses: 39 / 38 Negation: -n Negation marker -n in main clauses headed by complementizer sa ka: Negation marker -n in dependent clause, negative-implying embedding verb: Negation concord with marker -n in embedded clauses: 40 / 38 But: n marker can also express deontic necessity! Expression of deontic necessity: Alternative construction, derived from Bislama mas, cf. English must 41 / 38 The Semantics of the Modal Markers Cf. Krifka (to appear) 2016 A Presuppositional Analysis of Realis and Potentialis Modality in Daakie (Port Vato), Ambrym, Vanuatu, Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory 26. General setup: Modus-less proposition, e.g. [ vp Enet koliet] Enet sing, φ, true at world/time i iff φ sings at i. Finiteness by modal marker: [ TP Enet [[mo] [t Enet koliet]]] RE(φ) Realis marker: [ TP Enet [[mo] [t Enet koliet]]] RE(φ): proposition true at i iff φ is true at i or at a world/time i before i. and defined only if φ is true at i or at a world/time i before i. (presupposition). Explains the factive interpretation of realis embedded clauses. RE(φ) is still informative in root clauses. Realis negation marker: [ TP Enet [[tere] [t Enet koliet]]] RNEG(φ): proposition true at i iff φ is false at any i before or equal to i and defined only if φ is in fact false at any i before or equal to i. Explains the factive interpretation of irrealis negation embedded clauses. 42 / 38 The Semantics of the Modal Markers Potentialis marker: [ TP Enet [[bo] [t Enet koliet]]] POT(φ): proposition true at i iff φ is true at at least one world/time i after i. and defined only if φ is true at at least one world/time i after i. Explains the potential interpretation of potential embedded clause Explains the futurate use of potential root clauses Future prefix a-, complementizer ka: Quantification over all future world/time pairs Distal marker: [ TP Enet [[te] [t Enet koliet]]] DST(φ): proposition true at i iff φ is true at some world/time i, with i i Pragmatic principle of maximize presupposition: Use RE, RNEG, POT when possible Blocks the use of distal except in counterfactual cases Distal as temporal anchor: Introduces reference time different from speech time i. N marker: [ TP Enet [[ne] [t Enet koliet]]] N(φ) has the same truth conditions as φ: N(φ) is true at i iff φ is true at i. but with an anti-factive restriction; N(φ) defined for i only if φ is false at i. Hence N(φ) can only be used in negative contexts that involve N(φ) N(φ) does not relate φ to the world/time of utterance, hence it cannot be used as a standard negation for this: RNEG(φ), it can only occur embedded by a negative-entailing predicate and/or complementizer that creats a relation to the world/time of utterance The rare deontic use of N(φ) is possible only if φ is in fact not true, but if it is expressed that φ should be true. 43 / 38
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