Norlh AIIH'I'iran hlilol' llr /\t j11 S11!gl! hlilol'ial Buanl

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C' : :( ltlsl ructi( m M ; I; I )',. I Ill' Ill :lild I :n lll 1111 i cs I d i 1 ot a lit \\'ill (111''1 : 1tl 111t d 11l t, t lll lil llll ' lhllll\\nllllj t' llll. lll ;\I!.J 1; 11 p,t tl1t
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C' : :( ltlsl ructi( m M ; I; I )',. I Ill' Ill :lild I :n lll 1111 i cs I d i 1 ot a lit \\'ill (111''1 : 1tl 111t d 11l t, t lll lil llll ' lhllll\\nllllj t' llll. lll ;\I!.J 1; 11 p,t tl1t lllt l' I I III \ I, II V Il l l!t!idiiij( l 't 'I' '.' Ill, \\'lt lirludl!l'' 'l I 1 :, 1111K l(t ;,, t t\w,lik I( 11111!1. W l'.llngllchitl'll'ill lllt J',.I!t 11l /hlau anti AIIHirallll;lan Editm lit \\'1111K :-, 'I 'K I ) t I u l t :ollti!!!lrlitlll Stl' l I :,v ill 11gi11ecring T ' 'V.I IIt:l l i11ivcrhiiy llt'ljlllf( IIIIIIIH I I: I: t.qwllllf(ltfl l s inllllii.l' tl t l.t' l! I... ' J'l.'H,II hli I..,. M :. l k.d, ill 1 :' ! ' '' ' l'.f\1 1'1 I t\t I S Co Cl II,1\-1 IIIII' lll:tl:,c l'a:. :d ( :lit I ' l..o, 1 a 1 It '. I' n 1,, /\1 . l.ii V:dl 1 :.. d n.. l ' r '. F -111 :111 'tllq,:tg ll:t lt l! t ' ll\h.lr Norlh AIIH'I'iran hlilol' llr /\t j11 S11!gl! 1\ is ncintr PttJkssnr! h'ptlllti!l' ill ol ( :1vil :uhil (n viltltlllll'lll :d I 1.11 J4 111l'CI ill)/, ' '). [Ill lok S lrtt I, llulllll'x I lull \HI I l11ivctsilv ui' II IIWIIIIII I Mill! Ill llolltllllll, Ill 'lloll... t is/\ I 111: il : ' gl ltll '\1' llg.ll:l\\'llit n l11 hlilol'ial Buanl l'i tdc,:;tlr ( ihnsillll li. t\ut lnt l l lllll't' .lly 11l.'i: di' rd S ll ' (it calc! M:nd l t:sler M'i tiwt, l ' li t 11 W.J 1'. llukcm St c l: r y icncr: l C lll l' :.!hiix I H 17 ltllltl IIV l { lintl : llll ' ll1, Ncillt tla!ltls l',.,lc r M. llull I I llll ttiiiii/ 1 l(outl 1. 1 ' NW'i lilt, I JK,. l it /\ \. lit e' ' ll11. l ln! Vl'ts il y 111' l.c ic: :sll'l' I,.l,l:.!n 1.1 : 1 7 1UI, lik P 1t1k:..ur.f. Bri!cht11..: r I :11,illlll' U ni vnsil y of'l'eclin l gy S l II % Ciitcborg Swcdt:n blilnl'ial Correspondcnls l'tokssm D. Ardit i lllll!nts I11Hii1111e of' l'cdll.lolugy l is, \ l't ukssor I I. lljii rnsson Siallford Univcrsil y lisa 1' 11 dc.:.ur I'. Itt lwl't l I li11versity of Cape Tow n S ' h 1\ fri t: a Pn 1fcssnr N. CosLantino l' lilt.:c III CO di Jlari li :dy l'rufcssor Ding Shizbao Tt11gji University I :11111a t\ ciatc Prokssor 1'. Edwards [(,.yal Mdhturnc lnstillttc nftcchn ol ;:l' 1\ ' : l ia I )r IC Fcllmvs The University of I!nng Kong llu ngknng l'rukssur M. Fischer.\t:11durd I i11ivcrsi1y l lsi\ I r S. (an :.: an S11 l.a nka I l1 I dtl t : nllll:ttl. ltl t lll I l u\ t. I.ttq,d t HI ( :HI :. tdliih y 1\ \i.j II\' i'l.11 JI,,Jh' I. WI : I V loi S, 111.:, I )t '\ ' ltl'\v I :IIIII y J.t iii)'.jd lt 1fUtl glil lltivl.'l ; il y I. IIIJ '.Id l' lll'.lf 1.1'. 11 I'J'I I, I II( l',,,k :.lfl I i :11111 lllq tt 11.d ( :t dk.t t d.. \t IC'IH l' :tlld ' J't't 'hll t dtlgy 'L, I I 'lllll l's ( i:ll l'.\thil lt I t ll:.lltglnll ( ::lllljlll' ' 'I'' .\\XI'!.'!\'!. I 1 I' 11 \ lldklor:11hii ( :t lll . tdl :tlll I :, 11/HIIIll:. ( ( ;, t t ll II\ If/ ( :till : 1 1,{' ' 1'1\1' \, lllh. 1\1 :-.lt-y s 'l 'd.1. '/lit 1. I lk l'ruk:.:.. r I )a vid l.a ll g l'onl!j IIl \' 'I'.IIY ul' Sirailll lyd t: l'nit ' ( :.W. lhhs I I ' 1'./I V ol I ::dif,mia a! lkrkcky tis:\ l,rok;.'ttll V. ln.:l: 111d Tlt: l lllt vc r, il y of 1\dt:l:lidc t\u lt. dt:t /\'\1 (;,,.,. l lllll' 'l'.t! y ( :,Jiq,t l. litl li U l-: P. Lansk y Pl tlll':.r l.llli\'c 'ity oi' l cad in g UK Dr J k11 g!.1 H o 11. Kong l'nlytcchnic University Pruk.,,r.f.B. Milkr lv\1 I US.\ As :-. 11 t:lll Professor H.. Navun ' J'cdHi hl ll Is rael lns litut c uf ' l cdll1tllugy lsr:t\ 1 Prcd...::-. :.nr .f. ()fori N tl ti llal University of Singapore Dr 1\. J'ictrnfmtc \X-'c t\ 'dl'r l,nlyil'l hlli c lns titllll' l 1.\.1 Pr t..:-. or IV\. l{anas inghc l h11'._-r it y o f JV\oraL u w:l S 11 I,,,,k:t Ioiii! 1\ tllh-tslltl ll lllldill Ill'/!(ttl ll' /11'11\1' I ii H ' I i l ON t i, I 11.:. I 'rnfosur 1 1111 l :tflny SLiioulul/\n:liilnt IIT ( lipsy I.: ::lllljltis I kadint o n l l x!'tlld l 1\ \ti ll I ', I lk ll1 ll. \r V JJIH!! ' l luivlt ; il y td Hin JIIIIJ.!.IIillll J.dgb.i i S \l, lt ll in llingllalll Ill ' 2'1'1 ', IlK llrll. Winl'li Malldll.:!'!ll'l ( :cltllc l11r ( :1v d 11 11d ( : ttn ;!JIIl li!lei li.jq',/lll'l'iiiij.!, limist 1'0!lox HH, Sat:kvdk S t rc :l Man t: hestcr M oO I l)l), UK Dr ( liira11 l uncs lll l Jni vn sil y of f\lcwcastk Ail S(!':!li:l l'rokssm M.f. SJ..ih11iewsk1 l'urdue Univcrs il y US/\ l'mkssor M. Ski1morc l)t!ccml:llld I l11i vc itv ui'tnlllilll gy Australia l'rukssor 1'. Tha l111:1nn f;colc l'nlytcchn i4uc F.:d.: r:dc d e l.a usannc Switze rland Dr. P. Totnbesi University of Melbourne Australia Pmfcssnr fl.o. Uwakweh Univcrsit y.,! Cincinna ti USA I,n dl:ssnr A. \\'arszawski ' l '...:c ltnitlll Israel Associmc Professor T. Yashiro Universit y nft11kyo.fa pan l'rokssor /.hong D e 11ghua Ti::njin Univcrsity C hina c ' \ r:.ll/\(l'/ll'fil ll/ A fiiii,j:i'/111'/1 1.l! /1 // :',-(1/ /l 'lli /1 I (Nti\l'lldwr - (i() - 1 )) I q q II I I illl\11 \ j HIt\ , \ j,,,j,,,: I ' ' hl.lo!ot ' 'l'hc irnptct: ol' 11on- l'ill:lllci:tl incl nlivcs on hrickbtycrs' productivil.y i11 Nigcri:1 ()1./\llUSII'U I. fit\ iltl ' f l.1'.', /\lli '.I HMI \' AI J :Y J : MJ n1td I /\VII !\. 1\1 l: ia N \' \. 1 1! f ll l ' llll ' l/1 of ,/iug, I /11111.' ' 'I : II. _,: 1/ t ; lul l :l', /.' 11 1 I l/:1, Nu: '' 1 /!,( ' 111 / /lu d.l111)!, I 1/,/ ' '. / ;t l 1 1 1 nu'l'l'lll\', 1/, 1/1, Nu: '' l{rlrivnl l t'vlllr c il. (lll. ; tll l' ) t l./. I /\( ttl 'tltl l.. II i)!il prnd11t'l ivi1 v i t: l l''.t lt k.i '.,, 1'.' d II '\l :: tll '' f, HIJ '. 1,.tlli :.; 11 ''' ' (Iii -,, i; : lfi N i,,i 1 ia 's l :i1 ' ' . lltll'tl ::l,;t, l ' lllli'!il' lioll illdll:/11\', ill'l\11 !ii I 111/1 '\li( \' 'i'l 'i \' 111) 1, Vl l/1111/ :. IIIII/ illli\111 i:d illl 't'lllil' ' ::. 111'111!'. nillll'd ill illq illl'illg llj ciiiiivl'h' Jli'lldllt 'livily. 1\ q1 to /1/ 111/ll' ', 111 1' '\' 111 1'11 11' 111} '. 1111' )'. '1/ll'lll :11111 I' 'I'H iil' 'li 11 i, 111/ loll\ it1111 :: \\':HI t.' iihiiil'il'd Ill til'iciiiii ll ' II 111/j :l\ I 1d ill 'ill' :; l ll'lll ' / 11 I'IIHJII IIVII Y 11l l n.-1\l : t \'l' l.. 'i'l t ' ' 111\'l'\' 11' 1 1 1'\lllijl/tll tl'll l l'd Will! \lll si l l' l l'.l tl':t llll/1 IIII o! llll':t:.t/1 1.' 1111 ' 111 n/ 1 11 \ ki: ly\'i's' \l\ \lll /i) I' I/ISII'I Ic 0 ll llli'iii)l'l'ts Ill order 111 d t l l' l'lllill t: I ill' illljl:lll li11 :11t1 1.d Ill 'lltil'l :..-/ ' ''. l'' dli L' Ii vi l y. I :ollq 1: 11 a1i vc :111:ily s 11!' sil l's with :111d willi hii inn 111iv, s ' ' ' ''' 1lta1 11 fin :llt i: d j,,..,.llll\'1. :. ill l!ll':, ig:11lir:lltll y 11111'111\'l'd Ill it k l;l yl-rs ' prnd11cl iv.: tilltl' :1111llh csl,.,,,.,ll, s :ll'l'l llll l l!'tor fl' ;. 1 _,_(, {, ' v:tri:lllllls in nllljlllti H' III'l'\'ll thr I \I'll sl t s,,(' si tes on block laying and col!i' I 1111 g activit,,.,, lllcas urcd. Kcywunii: Non-linancial incciii iyc, mntiva t , prll(l11 c tivi1 y imptlll'l'll it'llt, bricklayers, N igeria r nt mlucl ion :ontpkxit y illvlllvn l in lhl' construclitlll ]li'iil'l's. The c onstruc tion indusrry i11 N igeria is l:ti)iiur inl cnsivc; and i t is rhe hig h est employ : r of till narion's work force. The indusrry a l so ll'l llllnts fo'r IIVLT 50 ';-;, or the country's g r oss capital for11tation. Unf'urtunately most empirical srudies have r ev, :d c d thar th L o urrur nf rh c ind11 s1ry is q11it : low w h c 11, t!i IJ :trn l \I'll it 111 :\II V dn, l npt.d ('0\lllll'il'S. \X 1 nrktt ;' Jll ll ltll 'lt \' il\' oil ' llll'. IIIH :--.til's Ia ; 1 s l ll'l' l 1 :--; It t,,,.,, 1 t I,,,.,., \' 1 '' ' ' : ttt, I 1 Itt :. It : 1. l cctt I la c trc 11d!'tt ' :t ltlltj t tt ltt ' (( llult.ltttt, 1 ) )11 :tttd t\y:11 1dl'k, ll)'l!o ). P:tl'ls n l' th e n. ;as ntt s :Hidtt, d f th'!itt:. ''' ' Jlltllltt tt \ ' 11 \' ;ts givc1 1 h y \X/ ;tl! :th ( 11)77) ', : S lll,sl :lllli:d n sc 111 II tkllt:lll l tlllt :.l 11 11' i11tfll ll \' Ill lilt' J_l) '/ 11. :1 11d l'. l l l \!1) \ll':;. 1. : 1 I'L' SIIit u/' llllj)i'l'l'l' d L' III 'i llll'l'l':is\' Ill \1 '\'l'll\ll' l pctrok11111 n s Hirn. '' ' s ''l'l'' .. r ' I' I '' ''' I '''III J'. 111:\ll'\ i:d,, t\hjijh 1 111 { tl l l l S (IIIIltkiH t . l :nl'rv:lling w ::llhn l 'tlihiiiion. lneitccrivc stipcrv ision. Absentee ism o n a prolonged scale. In th.: same vein, O gunlan a and Olomobiy e ( 1992), nuted tha t o n rhe aver age, workers sp e n ;l approximatel y ll:ll ' ni' I heir workin g 1by, :ti'tcr :tllnwing l'nr lunc h hr c :k s :lt:. 'll t S 1111 prndtll'livl' w nrk; w l!ik 1i11 1'1 '1/l:liiiiiiJ'. II I II. ( , Ill 1( ;,II( ' Ill 'It!,., II \' till I'' t l { lit' I ltlll,, t II I,JIIIl' l I I ll ''.IIIIII J',, J t'tl'i\' IIIJ'. ita ;; lnlt litlii S : 11HI id!irag. NH':tt ijuk\\' 11 ( jl) ''' : d ;; n tlh;at \'t'tl 1l1 :tl : 1 Ltr}',t ' dH r PI Jli''Jt ' t l lll. t ii : IJ'.t' l ;, :111d Slljlt 'l vi snrs d11 tlnl k thi \V Ito\-\' ltl tdt' llld y l ' r:llll' 's' gn;d s :111d l111k iiil' II1 w i1l1 nq,o;:uti /.:tli1111 :d,,.,,.:1nl i11 Prdt'l' In lllnliv;ll l' npt-r:llives. 1\s :1 r e;d dl, t')ll'l:tll\' t' S gl'l l ru s lr:ll t'd :IIHIJ'I tltJVIivii V Sldlt l :-.. 1( 11:111 t l 1)1) \), l'l'llt l'll'lltll:il II II ' IIIIJltll'l :llll'l' 11/ :111 l ; tllth Ill lll ; tll:lgl'lllt'lll, ith 'Il HIII IJ'. IIHili V; IIill) itl l t'l l ll S tol lllll\'isitlll 11!' itii'l'illivi' Sl 'III' \11\ S, II': S IIIII \l'l ' li,,.,...,._ 111 /.l 'ti lllllil '' ' 1':11\lti\IS I l: \\'l!tlll'\11' Sllldi,-,; \\'I'll', ' 111 1,,..! /.-' 0 ' s :tt11 l c:11l v IIJ \()' s. 'l'ltc III:!J I' ' ' l 'l i, :tli .. r till' ll:tw1 1 .'1 l ' slttdics w:1s :t dt:ulgc i11 \ll:tii:i J',t' \11\ ' lll liti11 k i11 g 11 1: 11 Ill ' 1\'(tl'k l'll Vil'l lll\111'111, li 11 I, 11(\ / /1/o l/i'll,, l.t fld):' /1 /o II/,/1/,J /. , l,/ltlfl/11 \ 1. ; l ti l I I 1 1.,. i '-.., N I I to. I ', ', \ 'd'''' '.' tltl I ' 1'; ;,:1 ', \ l ;t :ttl!,., I.t.J lllq \\\\ \\' l.llt oll t 1.J-. Jtlll\l.d. 1 ll 1 u 1 i tt, 11 1 r, ' t 1111, 1 1.,, _ c; ()()() k 'iillg (1,. hcill g l':lrl or :;olllclllillg illlfll ll l:llll :111 1 ll w :111 :I;)(' 1 i 1111 o fl1 a vi 11 J.'. st 111 t co 1111 ol c 's ow 11 1 k s 1111 \' could linvc :1 signifi c:11 11 lllfitlcllcc on prnduclivilv. 1\yandcle ( 199o), categorized the variety or m e thods in which WOrkers :lrl' lll lli V:II cd :I S rc:jr or i!jl' Sllfll'rVisor :111d fear or Josi11g :1 jtdl, lwi11g p:111 of Ill\ Wtll k il ::clf, iii LTII I ivcs, job s:il isf:1cl io11 and d i::ciplim in ILT IIIS or l1i,11 silc Jllor:ilc. llt1nhd :1i yc ( J() )(J ), in his s111dv 1111 hricklaycrs' llhllivation i11 tih.: U11itcd Kingdo111 colieluded that lllotivatillll docs II U( in/lucncc the rat e or working. According to l im, what inlluenccs or d cln lllinc how bst a wo rker produces is 111mc ()f:t h111ctit1n or his l'l)uip 111elll and ski ll. Olonwlaiyc ami!'rice ( 11JH 1 J), argued that coj Jst rlil tion work conta in s some inhe ren t in 1riJ1 sic mo1i v: 1tors. ALL ()rding to thc111 in order to llwliv:lll' workns, i11 c Jllanagcllle nt should provid e :1 collgl'iii :d Wtll ki1q , 1 li Jll ii ll' for n1 1fivntor:: :: 11clJ :1:1 tl1 c wt1 1k il:: lr, fitiillt:; or IIU 'Illl1fllisilllll'lll hy til l' workn : '\tlgllilioll fm ello1 ts. Tiley We ill runih:r to :1sscr1 111:1! pay is :1 loll'n level Jllot iva tor :11 HI should IIlii l1 e treat ed :1s :1 pri111 c (t Jnotivator. 1\daJIIS ( 1 1)(, ). proposed his equit y tli L ory or 1110iivation, which is based on eq ua l treatment or people. /\ccordi11g to hin1. people in any organization.. have a tendency to compare their inputs and cojtesponding rewa rds vvith of her people in the s:um rg:llli /.:1 - lioll or even in oilier organiz:llions. Peopl e C0111parc lhl ir injhits in tcr111 s td. cducatioji, cxpcric JI Cc, :dlilily,, f lillt :1111! luy:dty whill' tl1 cy co1t1p:1rc lli cir rnv:m!s in lltiii S of s:ji:try, prollllllitlll, rl'l ogllitioll :11 1d Slll i:Ji rl'l:l lillll ': ijip. If :1 IHT tl ll ll-l'ls lllllin rcw:m lnl i11 1 o111 p:lli :; tlll Ill olhlts, tile prtltiu L Iivit y or fil e fll'i'silll III:I Y,. 11 dow11 :11 1d L'VL'II li e ur she 111 :ty quit I he joh. ( )JI fil e o tl ll'r IJ:tllli, :1 JHTSt lll lh:ll li.:els ovn ll'w:iit kd 111 :1y ge l 111 otivaled :11111 cnlllrilnji L' 111ore. 1\.11:111 ( 1 1 1 1 \) :dso ll'lllllf d tl1111 :-;killlll'r i11 IWi I :Jt! VIH : II 'd thai llltllll'l:lry or lltlii JillliiL'I:try illl. t'llli vcs (pr:1i sc, rl, ugllilitlll, pm Jllllf ioji I'll ) nllt'j ll tl l'.'iill 'd ht lln \' itlllr i11tti 'i1:: 1 Jlltlh:dliiJty ld' till' ll'!ll'lifi; )Jl ld' till' dl'!i ijt d lll'll!ll'illlll. \\'i ll'll'll:l, JliiiJislllllt'lll (di :t iplilllll \' lllt 'll:i llll':l, ii1w :: l'ft ) :din :111 ltlldl'sirl'd I)('!J:!vinlll' dl'ne:1sl's till' fllllll:lhilll y or the repetition or the Ulldcsired behaviour. A number of studies (Maloney, 1981; Borc herding I 97 6 ; Chorom okos and Mckee, l 98 1; Bo rcherding ct a!., l 0H2 and C:a llah,an, 19iN), have implicij!y allrihutecl low labou r produclivity tll the presence of a number of demotivators (dissatis fi ers). AccorL!i:1g to Koehn and Cook ( 1987), motivators (job enrichment) cannot manifest in improved productivity unless these demotivators arc removed. Adeyemi (2000h) nhset-vcd the presence of a number of demotivators in the Nigerian construc tio n industry, w hich are clogs to produc tivity improvement. Those having direct b earing with ope ratives' m o tivati on arc identi!ied as: fill' 1-'a-:hc lll ' L'l :II. lll :lf lf'' llri :ll l' ltnl :111d L' J11ip1 11 L' I11 breakdown. l'vl:llt 'll.d:; sihhi :q:, drl:1y :111\1 \\' i t!l lll l'. lll Lx.: ll il ll'wi lli ''' I cs lit11 :1l111g c JJ n i:l /\bsc 11 c of trailllll ).! aud safety plogratllllll's. Job iij ',, curit y/c llif ' ln yee turn over. No11 IIJ Vn lvl' II II'III of CtlllStrucli un crews 111 prod 1 1 ion o hj t lilts. lll l lllll fl e ll'lll flll l' llll'll. l'rl'd lllinnn cc td Maslow's llicnry X si lc Jll : llt : l)t' r s. The ohjeciii'l' of this \ l1dy is to dete rmine the extc nl to which fi ll CUITCIII '' 11- litwncinl incentive schemes hl' in g opcr:ji d hy Ni,_.,,., i:111 con lrac tors have influenced the produ li vity of a L.II Cgory of Op CJa ti VeS- the hric k J:Iye JS :1g:111 1'.1 file pre:,,.,,. c oflhcse d e m n li va tors. Oihcr 1r : 1dc :li t t lilllill:llt'd 11 111 ll 1is st11d y so Ilia! d :lla arc 1ask spt'l iil ( l.nvis, / 'l cr/j. Hcscat ch mclhodology l' rij11:11 y d:11:1 we re '.,fle e ted 1l1rough questionnaire survey at HI direct fiel d III Casurements/observa tions. The study s llll!dt s were r:111tlomly drawn from construc li on linus wi1hi11 the tli n T major geographical zo 11es in Nigcna (sn11thwes1, sn11 11icast and northern areas). The c li1 SI r11 c1 it 11 /Inns s111 1, ycd were classified into l:ugc, Jll ed illlll :illd Slll:JII Iii Ill ::. The essence or the cl:l ss ilicatillll w:1s 1 ,.llsllre IH IIJH ge neily of response :11111 comp:jr: lli vl :l ll :d ys is. Tl w llll'lhod or classilic:llitlll or lhc ct II Sinll'lilll lin11 s w:1;!lased o11!heir regislr:llitlll L :llegllri;.: tlllll w ilh 11 h dn:d Mi11i s1 1Y nfwpjks :uhi l lollsill)'. 111 N igeria. '1\vn ::1 1. lfljiil'sti.,iij:iires were prepared 1111 I.ikerl IVIH' SL :dc nr Zl'IO ' lour Ill S:llliple the opinion of llo\'tl lli l'l :ll I til's of 1 111 ' IIIICiitlll practitiotll'r:: (till' IIJ :IIJ : q l ' lll l' lll.llltl till' l11i ll:1yt 1s) itt ti JL' tl1ree cnlq-:11rics 11r, tlll ':tnllti firlll 'l 111,J.- ftnnilll' 1i1 c: e il'l' l nf JlllJIIIi.llll\' llr fillllll l illl flll l'lllivi' ;1 J,, I ill 'S ill l lllfi i ij i 11 1n wi t II lilllllll'i:il illl'l'lllivt' Sci ll 'llll's. lcvl' l of invol\'t. lll t' nl or the lllallagelllellt :llld the bri kla ycrs 111 1he introduction of ince ntive sch,nes to tlwi ' o rganiza ti on s. pn 111illlll pl :H,., I llll Slllll l' ide ntified vari:jbics of IIO II Iinancial i: l' ntive schem es b e ing operated by II ll' firms. Research : 1 s i stant s II'.TC employed to distribute and assist til l' hricklayc1 s site to interpret the qucstionn:1i1 cs!1 was assun l 1hat the current crop of bricklayers in h 1 geria h:1 : :1t least junior secondary school ce r1 ifi c:11 it s cq 11 i.. :dl nt and received formal rraining in hlockh. 111g and HTcti ng from either govern1ncnt e 'J I /It I II I u It' I \:I' N I J:t 'I i. II I I I lit I i, I ' ' I \ ' f I I p, I II 1/ i ' I{ I' 11\11 lrntlt lil'iltltdll ttl' 1111 y 11ll11'1.11 ' 'Iiiii I dr 'I 'l 'il'llllt t':,llil' IIIJI.II 1 1 ' l'liltt'tll lll'lllli td ' tlll'tll \\'ldlr lt IJitl(ldJII J!. Jli'II V, IOIIIIIIIl'li, :'llt ' illlll!'iqrtllllll 1' ,.., Jll:illll'i'll'll lt1 tilt' tjllt':illllllllilill'll 'J'I1r:l\' Vllliidtlt'll Jilt': ltn lll'l' :dji ' In t 'tlllllllllllit : ll ' t ll'ntl, \\'Ill :111tl :qlt':lki lililly ill 1\llgli:dl I.1111)-',llliJ'.l'. Ill :lll.lilitlll, 1111 lllliltl IIIIJ',II :I n11lllfl' of Nigni11 h11:1 t'tlllljll'll '.ittnfl:illl.ll I hi' ilhl, 111 t'tlllllllllllit'illl' Well l' IIIIIIJ'.II Ill l:ll)',li:;l1 l.lll)',lliij',t', tilt' Cttlllllry's lingua- franc a, if tlll y llltlsl hill' ' 111e:t11inghd itlln:wtiiiiin witlli111iwir Wt ll',!ll'll'illllll 'lll Tl1i :, i:, 1.,., 1; lllt!ltl 1' 1-i/lt'lllild ill lllltlti llilllttllid t 'tlll ' llllt ltllll't w iwn IIIIIIIY 111' tilt' prnk:;:dllllilh tlll'y i111 ' ' 1 \\'111, '' lltll s p nk lilly or the lilt'l'i i:iii J ', II : Ift' S. Till. :l :.:illllljllit ll wa s 1'11r1hn lt'sit:d :111d t'llllfillll,j i11 tlw tjii, t ittllll:lirl' ' I ill' Ill it ki i iyl'l'. l'n 11'i :: i J' iltlt'ljllllll' \\'t!l'killv, lthtl:. 1111d t'tjlli.jiiilt:l_l_l. Tr:111::p11rl 111 illid l'n1111 sill'. l'rcc IIIL'tlic:d tn:aiiijciii l'11r lill: Wllrkns and llll'lllltl'rs td. tlwir l'iltnily, l'nl' t: :i1111 1'' ''.' ' ''''\\'P!k 11\'l'l'itll!;, livllllt' l, t'\' ' F.ll)',i'.ll':; I'll '. Saktv pl:111 s i1wl11dill the J I'IIVI:tllll 111' lir :t :id kit s 1111 slit'. 1 :11 1 111' till' yt :11 pal'ly illld il\\'llrd Jli):ht. 0.. ()J1c h1111drcd and scvelll\' tjllt'slionn:lllt's wert' dis lriihilcd 111 L'acl1 c:llcgory ol'r i' ihknls ll '.lllj.: str:llifinl randtllll s:llllpling lcchniqtil' witili11 till' tudy arl as. This is made up of 45, 55 :111d 70 que:; tionnaires to the large, m edium and small lirms resp el'lively. One hundred and five of the 17 () qu cs tionn:1res administer ed to the management we rc rerurncd. Two of t h c. q u es tionnaires wcrc nor I' ' lc d y fillnl :tnd were r c jecrecl leaving I 01 qucsrinltllilin: s for illl:tlysis. A s for 1h c hric kl:! ycrs, II H quesliollll:tlr.:s were ll'lurned hut I 0 \ w crl sekc 1ed h y h:dlnt i11 1 :11td 11snl,,.,. lll:tlvsis i11 lll'tkt (ll t'tlltf'ttltll ill tlllii!ih' I \\'tilt llt:li,.j illl' 111 :111 :1)'.1' I JH'II I. ' I'IH qu :.; tinjiij : Iil t.'.,,., IIJt ' ll 1'.1'111111,J!til!111 It sl he stressed tl1a1 :dl tiil'st' six sl'ill'illl's art lwi11g t'll!jll yt d in IWt'lliY 111' tl1c sc silt's. TIH'sl' sill :; \\'nl nujnhcrcd seri:dly with Rom;m numerals I to XX and they will be referred to as sites I to XX. The remaining twenry sites in which none of the six schemes are being opcr:lled w er e numbered from XXI ro XL and they will h e r ef'crred rn as sires X XI ro X L. The produc tivit y rat es ror eac h ol I h e 1w o g roups of sitcs w ere 111-:as ured a nd I h ell L'Ol11)1 iii'l'tl. The :111:1l y l ic:!l tools I! sed consisl of: lt l : tli l' o ' lll k X (I I ); 141 d t l t'llllilll' lltl' :.t Ill' I II ' I II : I I I '' I I I 4 ) I (. (. I I,,,, ( I\' (. I I I ) ( ' I \ \' (.. I I It I I ; II I t I ; II : II It I tiji C l ', ; ))l ' /',tlllt':. td toji :dltlllltlll IIIIIJ:, IIIII\ fttliiii t:d Ill\ t ' llll\' \ ' ',l 111 ' 1111 , Ill 1 : 111 ' lil t ll :; q,t ( ' :. tt t ' Ill \ ' t ':,t l)'.illlt Ill '. Ill I Ill. I.', JIIt ' I )I t Ill.,,., I, d 1!11 1\\ { t!lll!t o\ t P III!Hlllt ' llf :, td \Hill 1111 : 111t Lil l :JIII l ' d IHII It dt. ' lt.tllllllt ' tilt '' ''''''ttl tilt ltjh 11 :1\' t' ) ', 1, 111 \' h11iltlin,. :11td, i v d,, q tth ' t ' llll)'. I '', 1 lt ttq t':\t' t tth d I til \' ; Jritlll.
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