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research literature
  Introduction to ResearchProf. G. PhanikumarDepartment of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology, MadrasLecture  ! #$er$ie% of Literature &ur$ey We are going to look at literature survey in the next three modules, each compressingroughly about twenty minutes.(Refer Slide Time !! #$The first twenty minutes is going to be slides on the background of literature survey. %ndthen, the next twenty minutes roughly will be on actual demonstration of the variousliterature sources. & am going to show you how you can search for literature, organi'ethem in set of tools that you can use. %nd then, in the last twenty minutes, & will see howyou can use these literature data in a document that you want to write up. So, we will start off the literature survey by first making a disclaimer. iterature surveyis not )ust googling for some information. The reason is *oogle search engine is going tolook at private websites of various individuals. Whereas, by literature survey, what we basically mean is a survey of technical literature that is of authoritative in nature, pertaining to the scientific enterprise that is going on across the world in universities,research labs and so on. So, what comes closest to available, what is available in *oogle  would be perhaps *oogle scholar. So, please note that literature survey is not the same asgoogling out the information.(Refer Slide Time !+##$So, we are going to look at the literature survey in this manner. irst, a very brief  background on why should we get into this literature survey at all- and then, where arethe sources of literature that we could look up- what are the ways by which we can goabout searching- and then, who are all the publishers who host the scientific archivalliterature that is being used by scientists all over the world. %nd then, towards the end,how to collect and store it in a manner that we can use it to write up a document.  (Refer Slide Time ! !$/kay So, why do we want to do literature survey at all0 So, essentially the firstre1uirement that we need to do is every scientist cannot replicate the entire history of how a particular topic has evolved. So, we must use approaches that are going beyondwhat others have done till now- which means that we must know what others have used-what kind of approaches people have used- where are the gaps that have come up- and,where is it that we can contribute. %nd then, what is the difference that we are making tothe existing knowledge. %nd, very often a very novel techni1ue used in a veryfamiliari'ed area would be a good addition to the literature. %nd, sometimes a veryfamiliar techni1ue used in a totally novel area of research would also be valuable. So,novelty in familiarity as well as familiarity in novelty re1uire you to know what isfamiliar and what is novel. %nd therefore, literature survey is necessary for you to knowthat.%nd then, very often a study is valuable or seen as valuable by our peers when we areable to place that study in a current context, where people look at it as valuables. So, it isimportant to avoid duplication- and, it is also important to clarify certain controversialresults that may be coming up. %nd, if you want to know what is the state of the art in theliterature that is currently there and we want to extend and build on the work of others,definitely we need to know what is done till now. %nd, literature survey should help us ingetting that status 1uo of the sub)ect we are a trying to do research on. So, literaturesurvey that way is a very important aspect. &t should be done not only at the beginning of   the research but also throughout. 2ut, at the beginning, it definitely makes a veryimportant point.(Refer Slide Time !#3$iterature survey in the context of making a 4h.5. thesis or a research6based degree isimportant, because very often the research degrees are given based upon srcinal work that is done by the student. %nd, duplication is not acceptable even if it is not intentional.So, it is important to know what is out there, what have people done elsewhere in theworld on the research area that we are working on. %nd, sometimes it7s also important toestablish the context for your work, and its also important to have a backgroundknowledge of the topic that we are working on okay. %nd, to also point out anomaliesand gaps, we must know what has been done till now. So, in the context of a researchthesis also research analysis and literature survey is very important.
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