Lambeth Palace Library Research Guide Queen Elizabeth I

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Lambeth Palace Library Research Guide Queen Elizabeth I 1 Introduction Shrewsbury and Talbot Papers The Bacon Papers The Carew Manuscripts Other Manuscript Sources at Lambeth...
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Lambeth Palace Library Research Guide Queen Elizabeth I 1 Introduction Shrewsbury and Talbot Papers The Bacon Papers The Carew Manuscripts Other Manuscript Sources at Lambeth Printed Sources at Lambeth... 6 Accession... 7 Official:Church [A small sample selection]... 7 Court Sermons Official:Reign [a small sample selection]... 8 Controversy: opposition and responses [a small sample selection]... 8 End of Reign and Death Personal Dedications to the Queen Dudley bindings Early histories, eulogies and biographical works [A small sample selection] Later works Introduction Whilst the main manuscript resources concerning Elizabeth I are held in other repositories such as the National Archives and the British Library, Lambeth Palace Library does hold some collections of relevance and several items of special interest. 2 Shrewsbury and Talbot Papers The Library holds papers of the earls of Shrewsbury from the 15th century to the death of Gilbert Talbot, 7th earl, in The earls were influential figures, both locally and nationally, as lord lieutenants and privy councillors. Francis, 5th earl, was president of the Council of the North, and Gilbert, 6th earl, was custodian of Mary Queen of Scots. (MSS , ) Material relating to both Mary and Elizabeth is noted in the separate guide to resources on Mary, but these papers also contain substantial material on other aspects of the life and reign of Elizabeth I, both personal and official. A small sample 1 selection of references is given below (in date order):- Robert Swift to the Earl of Shrewsbury from London, 12 February 1554, written in the aftermath of Wyatt s rebellion. The Duke of Suffolk and his brothers have been sent to the Tower of London, as has the Earl of Devonshire. Lady Jane Grey and her husband have been beheaded. The Princess Elizabeth has been sent for [and was then committed to the Tower]. (MS 3194, f.23) Robert Swift the younger to the Earl of Shrewsbury, 20 May 1554, sending court news, including the release from the Tower of the Princess Elizabeth (MS 3206, f.263) The Lords of the Council to the Marquess of Winchester, the Earl of Shrewsbury and the Earl of Derby from Hatfield, 21 November The Queen [Elizabeth] has appointed Wednesday next [23 November] to make her journey from Hatfield to London and requires them to attend her with their servants, as well as to advise the noblemen listed on the enclosed schedule to do the same. (MS 3196, f.15) Francis Alen to the Earl of Shrewsbury, 3 September The Queen so liked the house of the Lord Treasurer [the Marquess of Winchester] at Basing and her entertainment there that she openly and meryly bemoned him to be so olde, for else by my trouthe (sayeth she) if my L. Treasurer wer a young man, I coulde fynde in my harte to have him to my husbande, bifour any man in Englande! (MS 3196, f.109) The Queen to George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, October , informing him that she had had the smallpox, but is now recovered. A postscript in her own hand assures him that no one would know she had been ill: My faithfull Shrewesbury, Let no grief touche your harte for feare of my disease for I assure you if my creadit wer not greatar than my shewe, ther is no behooldar wold beleve that ever I had bin touched with such a maladye. Your faitheful Lovinge Soveraine Elizabeth R. (MS 3197, f.41) The Queen to the Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury, 25 June 1577, thanking them for receiving the Earl of Leicester so well at Chatsworth and Buxton, and taking upon herself this debt as her own. She continues:- In this acknowledgement of new debtes we maie not forgett our ould debte, the same being as great as a Sov[er]aigne can owe to a subiect, when thorough your loyall & most carefull looking to the cheardge [Mary, Queen of Scots] committed to you bothe, we and our realme enioy a peaceable gov[er]nement, the best good happe that to any prince on earthe can befall Clerk s hand, but signed personally. Addition in the Earl s hand: to be kept as the derest jewell (MS 3206, f.819) The Earl of Leicester to the Earl of Shrewsbury, from the Camp at Tilbury, 15 August 1588, The Queen has inspected the camp the occasion of her famous speech against the Armada which so enflamyd ye hartes of her good subiectes as I think ye wekest person among them ys able to match with ye proudest Spa[niard] that dared land in England (MS 3198, f.284). 2 A full listing of these collections can be consulted in the following published catalogues:- A calendar of the Shrewsbury and Talbot papers in Lambeth Palace Library and the College of Arms. Volume I. Shrewsbury MSS in Lambeth Palace Library [MSS ], by Catherine Jamison, revised and indexed by E.G.W. Bill. (Historical Manuscripts Commission. Joint Publication, ) A calendar of the Shrewsbury and Talbot papers in Lambeth Palace Library and the College of Arms. Volume II. Talbot papers in the College of Arms, by G.R. Batho. (Historical Manuscripts Commission. Joint Publication, [The College of Arms collection is now held by Lambeth Palace Library as MSS ] 3 The Bacon Papers The papers of Anthony Bacon, who acted as a private secretary for foreign affairs in the service of Elizabeth s favourite the Earl of Essex. They are mainly concerned with state affairs during the latter half of Elizabeth s reign. They include copies of the Queen s correspondence with Philip II of Spain, James VI of Scotland, Christian IV of Denmark, Henry IV of France, the Emperor of Morocco, and several English and foreign nobles and diplomats. (MSS ) They also include more personal papers; for example the accounts for the Queen s entertainment at Gorhambury, the seat of Bacon s father, Sir Nicholas, from Saturday through to Wednesday, 18th 22nd May, The total cost came to nearly 600 and the detailed accounts include the exact quantities of poultry and pastry, mutton, veal and lambs, gammons of bacon baked and boyled, capons and all sorts of birds incuding 12 dozen herrons, 19 dozen pigeons, 16 dozen quales, and such unexpected items as dryed tonges, cowes udders and calves feete. There was beare and ales and wynes of all kyndes, flowers, herbs and confectionery, the cost of extra cooks, entertainers and labourers, down to the loss of pewter and linen and the few shillings required for the feedinge of fowle. (MS 647, ff.42-43) There is a published catalogue for these papers:- Index to the papers of Anthony Bacon ( ) in Lambeth Palace Library (MSS ), by E.G.W. Bill (London, 1974). 3 4 The Carew Manuscripts These manuscripts were collected by Sir George Carew, during his period in Ireland as president of Munster, for the purpose of writing the history of the island from the reign of Henry II to that of Queen Elizabeth, but the greater part of the material is contemporary. They include nearly a hundred letters to and from Elizabeth and several hundred references to the Queen. (MSS ) Of particular interest are her increasingly angry letters to the Earl of Essex, Lord Lieutenant and her erstwhile favourite, who united military incompetence with distinctly shady dealings with the Irish rebels. For example:- The Queen to the Earl of Essex, 19 July 1599, with a scathing analysis of his lack of progress. Your two monethes iourney hath brought in never a cappitall rebell against whome it had ben worthy to have adventured one thousand men This one thinge that doth more displease us than any charge or expence that happens, which is that it must be the Queene of Englands fortune (who hath held downe the greatest enemye she had [Philip II of Spain]) to make a base Irish kerne [the Earl of Tyrone] to be accounted so famous a rebell Lyttle doo yow knowe howe he [Tyrone] hath blazed in forraygne partes the defeytes of regymentes, the death of captenes, and losse of men of quallety in every corner As for Essex s excuses Wee see your pen flatters yow with phrases yow have all and more than that which was agreed on before yow went. His 4 problems were the effect of his own disobedient actions. (MS 601, f.179v-181) The letters continued through the summer. The Queen to the Earl of Esssex, 17 September 1599, on his private and possibly treasonous interview with the rebel Tyrone. She found his behaviour incomprehensible. Only this wee are sure (for wee see it in effect), that yow have prospered so ill for us by your warrefarre, as wee cannot but be very jealous lest yow should be as well overtaken by the treaty. (MS 621, f.143) Essex s career ended in rebellion and execution. On the other hand Elizabeth s letters to the next and much more successful Lord Deputy, Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, bore a very different tone:- The Queen to Lord Deputy Mountjoy, 3 December 1600, in response to his comparison of the task of pacifying Ireland to that of a kitchenmaid:- Mistris Kitchenmayd, - I had not thought that precedency had ben ever in question but among the higher and greater sorte, but now I find by good proof that some of more dignity and greater calling may by good desart and faithfull care geve the upper hand to one of your faculty, that with your fryeng-pan and other kitchin stuff have brought to their last home more rebells and passed greater brekeneck places, then those that promised more and dyd less. Comfort yourself therefore in this, that neither your carefull endevoirs, nor dangerous travells, nor heedefull regards to our service, without youre owne by-respects, could ever have ben bestowed upon a prince that more esteemes them, considers and regards them And so God bless and prosper you as yf ourself were where you are. Your Soverayn that deerly regards you. (MS 604, f.242) A full calendar of these papers may be found in the following published catalogue:- Calendar of the Carew manuscripts preserved in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, 1515-(1628), edited by J.S. Brewer and William Bullen (6 vols, London, ). 5 Other Manuscript Sources at Lambeth The Archbishops 'state papers' are catalogued in the main manuscript sequence at Lambeth and cover all aspects of Elizabeth s reign: local and central government, military and naval affairs, diplomacy and Parliament, and of course all aspects of church affairs. They include some letters written by the Queen, or relate to matters in which she was personally involved. A small sample follows:- The Library holds the bishops returns to Archbishop Grindal on the state of Puritan prophesyings in their dioceses in 1576 (MS 2003) and a lengthy letter from the Archbishop justifying his disagreement with her policy to the Queen, 20 December 1576 (MS 2014, f.67-71) Grindal s disobedience infuriated Elizabeth and the Archbishop was sequestered from exercising his office and confined to his house for six months. The Library also holds a copy of the Archbishop s letter of humble submission to Elizabeth, 21 January And as he is moste hartelie sorrie that he 5 hath incurred her Ma[jes]ties grevouse offence for not observing that her commaundemente, so dothe he moste humblie & lowlie beseche her highnes not to impute the same to any obstinate intente or meanynge to disobey [etc.] (MS 3470, f.78). The Fairhurst Papers (state papers taken from Archbishop Laud s study on his arrest during the Civil War and only recently restored to Lambeth) incorporate several items relating to the Armada musters, including a letter from Elizabeth to Archbishop Whitgift concerning provision by the clergy of men, armour and horses for the defence of the realm in 1588 (MS 2009, f.l). The same volume contains a later letter from the Queen to Whitgift requiring the clergy of the Province to provide forty-five light horse for service in Ireland, the Spaniards having landed in Munster, 7 October 1601 (MS 2009, f.141). The volume contains several other letters from members of the Privy Council conveying the Queen s commands on military affairs. The Fairhurst papers also hold various communications to and from the Queen concerning church affairs (MSS ) and a rare account of an Elizabethan parliamentary debate, February 1593, including the Queen s message to Parliament conveyed by the Speaker (MS 2019, ff.3-5). Elizabeth had a good relationship with her last Archbishop, John Whitgift. Sir Robert Cecil to Archbishop Whitgift, 11 July 1597: I have presented unto the Queene your booke of printed prayers and have redd unto her three or fower of them She hath willed me to geve you many thankes for the same and hath commanded some of them to be redd in her Chapple as they weare, but she is much troubled that her owne praier is in printe and requires the Archbishop to see that it is omitted from all copies printed (MS 3470, f.195). A contemporary copy of a letter probably written by Richard Bancroft, Bishop of London, at the direction of Archbishop Whitgift and intended for the London clergy, 28 March 1603, giving directions for a sermon describing the death of Queen Elizabeth I, with a full account of her conversation and spiritual condition, and concluding with remarks on the accession of James I. The congregations should give hartie thankes for the peaceable faithfull and perfect departure of our late leage lady and dreade Soveraigne the Quenes most excellent ma[jes]tie who from the first of hir sicknes unto the last did beare with great patience of mind and extraordinarie constancie of resolution and had her memorie perfect and right sound judgment to the very end (MS 3152, ff. 4-5). 6 Printed Sources at Lambeth Lambeth Palace Library holdings include several hundreds of contemporary printed works relevant to the life and reign of Queen Elizabeth. Many of the works bear the gold-tooled initials or coats of arms of Archbishops Whitgift and Bancroft showing that they date from the Library s original collections. A small sample selection is listed below, arranged in date order within sections:- 6 Accession A speciall grace, appointed to haue been said after a banket at Yorke, vpo[n] the good nues and proclamacion thear, of the entraunce into reign ouer vs of our soueraign lady Elizabeth... in Nouember (London, 1558). STC Rare pamphlet. An anti-papist speech rather than a grace. John Foxe, Germaniae ad Angliam de restituta euangelii luce gratulatio. (Basileae, 1559). A Latin tract of congratulation from Germany to England on the accession of Elizabeth and prayer of thanksgiving on behalf of the returning English Protestant exiles. Richard Mulcaster, The passage of our most drad soveraigne lady Quene Elyzabeth through the citie of London to westminster the daye before her coronacion. (London, 1559). STC A fourme of prayer with thankesgeuyng, to be vsed euery yeere, the 17. of Nouember, beyng the day of the queenes majesties entrie to her raigne. (London, 1578?). STC Also, later edition (1580?). STC Accession Day services. Official: Church [A small sample selection] Iniunctions gevenby the Quenes Maiestie. Anno Domini MD.LIX. (London, 1559). STC To reimpose Protestant worship and the abolishment of thinges supersticious after the return to Roman Catholicism under Mary. Also Articles to be enqyred in the visitation, in the fyrste yeare of the raygne of our moost drad soveraygne lady, Elizabeth (London, 1559). STC The Booke of common praier and administration of the sacramentes and other rites and ceremonies in the Churche of Englande. (London, 1559). STC 16292a. First Elizabethan Prayer Book. One of many official liturgical publications of the reign held by the Library. Certaine sermons appoynted by the Quenes Maiesty (London, 1563). STC 13651, One of several editions of the official two volume sets of Homilies to be read at church services. John Jewel, bishop of Salisbury. An apologie or answere in defence of the Churche of Englande (London, 1564). STC The standard defence of the Elizabethan Church settlement. Frequently reprinted and defended against hostile responses. An order for prayer and thankes-giuing (necessary to be vsed in these dangerous times) for the safetie and preseruation of her maiesty and this realme. (London, 1594). STC One of several special forms of prayer to be used with ordinary 7 church services. Court Sermons The library holds many sermons written by various contemporary clerics and delivered before Elizabeth I. Official: Reign [a small sample selection] A declaration of the quenes maiestie: conteyning the causes which haue constrayned her to arme certaine of her subiectes, for defence both of her owne estate, and of Charles the nynth. (London, 1562). STC Only known copy. Elizabeth by the grace of God...For asmuch as God of his great clemencie (London, 1568). STC Only known copy of this letter to Robert Cook, authorising him to make heraldic visits south of the Trent and to appoint deputies. Orders, thought meete by her maiestie, to be executed in places, infected with the plague. Also, an aduise set downe by the best learned in physicke. (London, 1578?). STC A declaration of the causes, moouing the queene to giue aide to the oppressed in the lowe Countries. (An addition touching slaunders published of her maiestie.) (London, 1585). STC Cecil, Robert. The copie of a letter to the Right Honourable the Earle of Leycester with a report of certeine petitions and declarations made to the Queenes Maiestie at two severall times, from all the Lordes and Commons lately assembled in Parliament. And her Maiesties answeres therunto by her selfe delivered, though not expressed by the reporter with such grace and life, as the same were uttered by her Maiestie. (London, 1586). STC The Queen s answere without answere to Parliament s pressing for the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. By the queene. A proclamation for reforming of the deceipts in coines. (London, 1587). STC A new charge giuen by the queenes commandement, for execution of orders published the last yeere for staie of dearth of graine.(london, 1595). STC Also, STC , a charge from 1600 on the same subject. Controversy: Opposition and Responses [a small sample selection] Jeronimo Osorio de Fonseca, bishop of Silves, An epistle to the most excellent Princesse Elizabeth (Antwerp, 1565). STC A translation of Fonseca s original Latin letter suggesting that Elizabeth return to the Church of Rome, which initiated a chain of replies and responses in the 1560 s. 8 Norton, Thomas, An aunswere to the proclamation of the rebels in the North. (London, 1569). STC 22234, and To the Quenes Majesties poore deceyved subjectes of the north countrey, drawen into rebellion by the Earles of Northumberland and Westmerland. (London, 1569). STC Against the Roman Catholic Northern rebellion. Norton, Thomas. A bull graunted by the Pope to undermyne faith and allegeance to the Quene (London, 1570). STC Against the papal bull excommunicating Elizabeth and releasing her subjects from their allegiance. John Stubs. The discoverie of a gaping gulf whereinto England is like to be swallowed by another French marriage (London, 1579). STC A violent attack on the proposed marriage of Elizabeth with the French King s brother which cost the author his right hand. William Cecil. A declaration of the fauourable dealing of her maiesties commissioners appointed for the examination of certaine traitours, and of tortures vniustly reported to be done vpon them. (London, 1583). STC Thomas Nelson, A short discourse: expressing the substaunce of all the late pretended treasons against the queenes maiestie. (London, 1586). STC Anthony Marten, An exhortation to stirre up the mindes of all her maiesties faithfulle subiects to defend their countrey (London, 1588). STC Written in Armada year. Marprelate Tracts A series of secretly printed anonymous pamphlets violently attacking the Elizabethan church establishment. The Library has the only known complete set of the seven original tracts and a considerable collection of equally vituperative responses, as well as the manuscript of the interrogation under torture of the suspected printers (MS 2686, ff.25-7). A declaration of great troubles pretended against the realme by a number of seminarie priests and Jes
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