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& Public Health Law Volume 6 Issue 1 ARTICLES A Remedy in Sight: International Clinical Research Regulation in the Wake of Guatemala and Nigeria Steven W. Postal and Robyn Whipple Diaz Striving for Greenhouse
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& Public Health Law Volume 6 Issue 1 ARTICLES A Remedy in Sight: International Clinical Research Regulation in the Wake of Guatemala and Nigeria Steven W. Postal and Robyn Whipple Diaz Striving for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Energy Independence in Pennsylvania Jon Johnson NOTES Smart Home Technology for the Elderly and the Need for Regulation Jessica Cocco West Virginia's Alternative and Renewable Energy Portfolio Act: The Mountain State's Latest Attempt to Quit its Addiction to Coal Alexander R. Paalborg The Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental (PJEPHL) is published annually by students of the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, in collaboration with the Graduate School of Public Health, 3900 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA PJEPHL can be contacted by at Information can also be obtained online at PJEPHL is printed by Western Newspaper Publishing Co., Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana. Single copies of Volume 6, Issue 1 are $10.00 and are available from PJEPHL. INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS The Editors invite the submission of unsolicited manuscripts for publication. Submissions will be reviewed based on the following criteria: appropriateness of topical subject matter to both the overall Journal and specific volume focus, the novelty of the issue raised, the scope of the area covered, the relevance to the broader legal community as well as southwestern Pennsylvania, and the completeness and usability of the material as presented. Please confine the author's name and biographical information to a removable title page. Footnotes should conform to the 19th edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Manuscripts can be submitted electronically or in any easily readable format to Articles Editors, Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental, 3900 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA Manuscripts will not be returned. Executive Editor LACEE ECKER Development Editors CAROLINE BANISTER TRACY LIN Senior Topics Editor JESSICA COCCO Subscriptions Editor MATTHEW KELLY MATTHEW ALLEN MEGAN CROUCH DANIEL ELLIS NOAH JORDAN REBECCA LIPUT BRYAN MURRAY SARAH PAGAN CAROLINE TONGARM Editor-in-Chief TARA TIGHE Senior Development Editor ROBERT STEIN Managing Editors KELLY MISKOWSKI JOE SCHAEFFER Topics Editors JUSTIN CASELLA DURWIN FULLER JOANNE KILGOUR E. VRYCE HOUGH Staff Editors ANDREW BARBER DEBORAH CRUM JADA GREENHOWE AMAN KAKAR ALEXANDRA MALATESTA JOSHUA NEW LATOYA SAWYER LATI WELLS Senior Managing Editor UZOMA OGBONNA Senior Articles Editor LAURA UNGER Articles Editors DAVID MCCANDLESS REBECCA LEBOWITZ NICK SCHAFER ZACH ZAGGER Subscriptions Staff MALLORIE MCCUE CORRIE THEARLE DANIEL BAUMANN ALEXANDRA CUNNINGHAM PRESTON JAQUISH RYAN KIRAY HALSTEAD MORROW MICHAEL OVENS SOPHIE SENYO Faculty Advisors EMILY A. COLLINS STELLA L. SMETANKA PATRICIA M. SWEENEY Office Manager; Director, Document Technology Center LUANN M. DRISCOLL Document Technology Staff PHYLLIS GENTILLE KAREN KNOCHEL DARLEEN A. MOCELLO BARB SALOPEK UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH ADMINISTRATION AND FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF LAW MARK A. NORDENBERG, Chancellor and Distinguished Service Professor of Law. B.A., Thiel College; J.D., University of Wisconsin. MARY CROSSLEY, Dean and Professor of Law. B.A., University of Virginia; J.D., Vanderbilt DREW CHELOSKY, Director of Development. B.A., Washington and Jefferson College; M.P.P.M., University of KEVIN DEASY, Associate Dean of Students and Associate Professor of Legal Writing. B.A., Pennsylvania State University; M.S.W., J.D., University of MARLON L. FERGUSON, Director of Administration. B.A., University of ANTHONY C. INFANTI, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Professor of Law. B.A., Drew University; J.D., University of California, Berkeley; LL.M., New York CHARMAINE McCALL, Assistant Dean for Admissions and Financial Aid. B.A., M.B.A., University of LORI E. McMASTER, Director of Career Services. B.A., Allegheny College; J.D., University of GEORGE H. PIKE, Director of Barco Law Library and Assistant Professor of Law. B.A., College of Idaho; J.D., University of Idaho; M.L., University of Washington Graduate School of Library and Information Science. FACULTY AND LIBRARIANS JESSIE ALLEN, Assistant Professor of Law. B.F.A., New York University; J.D., Brooklyn University; J.S.D., Columbia KEVIN D. ASHLEY, Professor of Law. B.A., Princeton University; J.D., Harvard University; M.A., Ph.D., University of Massachusetts. KRISTEN BAGINSKI, Faculty Research Services Librarian. B.A., Washington and Jefferson College; J.D., Pennsylvania State University; M.L.I.S., University of ELENA A. BAYLIS, Associate Professor of Law. B.A., University of Oregon; J.D., Yale DEBORAH L. BRAKE, Professor of Law. B.A., Stanford University; J.D., Harvard RONALD A. BRAND, Professor of Law and Director of the Center for International Legal Education. B.A., University of Nebraska; J.D., Cornell DOUGLAS M. BRANSON, W. Edward Sell Chair in Business Law. B.A., University of Notre Dame; J.D., Northwestern University; LL.M., University of Virginia. BENJAMIN E. BRATMAN, Associate Professor of Legal Writing. B.A., University of Washington; J.D., Vanderbilt TERESA K. BROSTOFF, Director of the Legal Writing Program and Professor of Legal Writing. B.S., J.D., University of WILLIAM J. BROWN, Professor Emeritus of Law. B.A., Seton Hall University; LL.B., Catholic University of America; LL.M., Yale University; Certificate in International Business Law, City of London College. JOHN M. BURKOFF, Professor of Law. A.B., J.D., University of Michigan; LL.M., Harvard NANCY M. BURKOFF, Assistant Professor of Legal Writing. A.B., University of Michigan; J.D., University of PAT K. CHEW, Professor of Law. A.B., Stanford University; J.D., M.Ed., University of Texas. EMILY A. COLLINS, Clinical Assistant Professor of Law. B.A., New York University; J.D., Pace VIVIAN CURRAN, Professor of Law. B.A., University of Pennsylvania; Ph.D., J.D., Columbia RICHARD DELGADO, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Law. A.B., University of Washington; J.D., University of California, Berkeley. MIRIT EYAL-COHEN, Assistant Professor of Law. S.J.D., University of California at Los Angeles; L.L.M., L.L.B., Tel-Aviv JAMES L. FLANNERY, Associate Professor of Legal Writing. B.A., Miami University; Master of Urban and Regional Planning, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; J.D., University of HARRY MARSHALL FLECHTNER, Professor of Law. A.B., M.A., J.D., Harvard CYRIL A. FOX, JR., Professor Emeritus of Law. A.B., College of Wooster; J.D., University of LAWRENCE A. FROLIK, Professor of Law. B.A., University of Nebraska; J.D., LL.M., Harvard DAVID J. GARROW, Research Professor. B.A., Wesleyan University; M.A., Ph.D., Duke JASMINE B. GONZALES ROSE, Assistant Professor of Law. B.A., University of Oregon; J.D., Harvard HARRY J. GRUENER, Clinical Assistant Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of HAIDER ALA HAMOUDI, Assistant Professor of Law. B.S., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; J.D., J.S.D., Columbia ROBERT BERKLEY HARPER, Professor Emeritus of Law. B.S., J.D., University of DAVID A. HARRIS, Associate Dean for Research and Professor of Law. B.A., Northwestern University; J.D., Yale University; LL.M., Georgetown ARTHUR D. HELLMAN, Sally Ann Semenko Endowed Chair. B.A., Harvard University; J.D., Yale DAVID J. HERRING, Co-Director of Clinic Programs and Professor of Law. B.B.A., J.D., University of Michigan. BERNARD J. HIBBITTS, Professor of Law. B.A., Dalhousie University; M.A., Carleton University; B.A., M.A., Oxford University; LL.B., Dalhousie University; LL.M., University of Toronto; LL.M., Harvard CHARLES C. JALLOH, Assistant Professor of Law. B.A., Guelph University; Bachelor of Laws and Bachelor of Civil Law, McGill University; Master's in International Human Rights Law, Oxford SUSANNA M. LEERS, Electronic Research and Technology Services Librarian. B.A., Columbia University; M.A., Clark University; M.L.I.S., M.L.S., M.S.L., University of JULES LOBEL, Professor of Law. B.A., New York University; J.D., Rutgers WILLIAM V. LUNEBURG, JR., Professor of Law. B.A., Carleton College; J.D., Harvard MICHAEL J. MADISON, Professor of Law. B.A., Yale University; J.D., Stanford Law School. MARGARET M. MAHONEY, Professor of Law. B.A., LeMoyne College; J.D., University of Michigan. MARTHA M. MANNIX, Co-Director of Clinic Programs and Clinical Associate Professor of Law. B.A., University of Vermont; J.D., University of California, Hastings. FRANCIS BARRY McCARTHY, Professor of Law. A.B., Stonehill College; J.D., Boston College; LL.M., Columbia ALAN MEISEL, Professor of Law and Dickie, McCamey & Chilcote Professor of Bioethics. B.A., J.D., Yale PETER B. OH, Associate Professor of Law. B.A., Yale University; J.D., University of Chicago. PATRICIA A. RONCEVICH, Acquisitions/Serials Librarian. B.A., M.L.S., University of THOMAS ROSS, Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of Virginia. RICHARD HARRY SEEBURGER, Professor Emeritus of Law. A.B., Dickinson College; LL.B., LL.M., Harvard KAREN SHEPHARD, Information Services Librarian. B.A., Grove City College; M.L.I.S., University of MARC B. SILVERMAN, Associate Director for Public Services. B.F.A., Ohio University; M.L.S., M.A., University of ANN SINSHEIMER, Professor of Legal Writing. B.A., M.A., University of Michigan; J.D., University of STELLA L. SMETANKA, Clinical Professor of Law. B.A., Carlow College; J.D., University of SALLIE SMITH, Cataloging/Systems Librarian. B.S., Villa Maria College; M.L.S., Syracuse University; M.L.S., M.S.L., University of JEAN STEFANCIC, Research Professor Emerita of Law. B.A., Maryville College; M.A., University of San Francisco. LINDA TASHBOOK, Foreign, International and Comparative Law Librarian. B.S., Texas Woman's University; M.L.S., J.D., University of GEORGE H. TAYLOR, Professor of Law. B.A., Brown University; M.A., University of Chicago; J.D., Harvard JUDITH A. TEETER, Visiting Assistant Professor of Law. B.A., University of Wisconsin; J.D., Boston University; Master's Certificate in Conflict Resolution, Duquesne SHEILA I. VELEZ-MARTINEZ, Visiting Clinical Assistant Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of Puerto Rico. LU-IN WANG, Professor of Law. B.S., Pennsylvania State University; B.A., University of Pittsburgh; J.D., University of Michigan. RHONDA WASSERMAN, Professor of Law. A.B., Cornell University; J.D., Yale AFFILIATED FACULTY DAVID BARNARD, Professor, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine; Affiliated Professor, School of Law. B.A., University of Chicago; M.A., Brandeis University; M.T.S., Harvard Divinity School; Ph.D., Harvard University; J.D., University of ROBERT M. HAYDEN, Professor, Department of Anthropology, School of Arts and Sciences; Affiliated Professor, School of Law. B.A., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., Syracuse University; J.D., Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo. KENNETH M. LEHN, Samuel A. McCullough Professor of Finance, Katz Graduate School of Business; Affiliated Professor, School of Law. B.A., Waynesburg College; M.A., Miami University; Ph.D., Washington JEFFREY J. SHOOK, Assistant Professor, School of Social Work; Affiliated Assistant Professor, School of Law. B.A., Grinnell College; J.D., American University; M.S.W., Ph.D., University of Michigan. ADJUNCT FACULTY KEVIN C. ABBOTT, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; J.D., University of RODNEY R. AKERS, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Virginia; J.D., Harvard CARRIE L. ALLMAN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Ohio Wesleyan University; J.D., University of LYNN J. ALSTADT, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., B.A., J.D., University of THOMAS D. ARBOGAST, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., West Virginia University; J.D., Duquesne STEVEN F. BAICKER-McKEE, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Yale University; J.D., College of William and Mary. ROBERT S. BARKER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., Duquesne EDWIN H. BEACHLER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Georgetown University; J.D., University of JACLYN M. BELCZYK, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of C. ALLEN BLACK, JR., Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Alabama; Ph.D., University of Newcastle (Australia); J.D., University of DONALD C. BLUEDORN, II, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., Grove City College; J.D., University of EDWARD J. BORKOWSKI, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., Duquesne University; M.S.W., University of EDUARDO H. BOZZO, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., National School of Commerce (Buenos Aires, Argentina); J.D., University of Argentina. ROBERT MARC BRENNER, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., Stanford University; J.D., Yale TYBE A. BRETT, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Barnard College; J.D., Columbia KIMBERLY A. BROWN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Dayton; J.D., Duke SARA BURHAN ABDULLAH, Adjunct Professor of Law. J.D., LL.M., University of Pittsburgh; L.L.B., University of Sulaymania (Iraq). CHARLES C. COHEN, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., Dartmouth College; J.D., University of Michigan. JOHN C. CONTI, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Pittsburgh; J.D., Duquesne MARIA GRECO DANAHER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., Indiana University; J.D., University of ELLIOT DATER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of Michigan. CLAUDIA DAVIDSON, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., State University of New York (Buffalo); J.D., Rutgers University (Newark). MARSHALL L. DAYAN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Georgia; J.D., Antioch LEON F. DeJULIUS, JR., Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S.B.A., St. Louis University; J.D., University of Notre Dame. THE HON. JEFFERY A. DELLER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Pittsburgh; J.D., Duquesne PATRICK J. DeMAY, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Notre Dame; J.D., University of CHARLES A. De MONACO, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Notre Dame; J.D., Ohio Northern CECILE C. M. DESANDRE, Adjunct Professor of Law. Baccalaureate A2, The Sorbonne, Paris. STEVEN A. DIAZ, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., San Francisco State University; J.D., Santa Clara PATRICIA L. DODGE, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., Pennsylvania State University; J.D., Duquesne THOMAS J. FARRELL, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Yale University; J.D., New York THE HON. D. MICHAEL FISHER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., Georgetown THE HON. JUDITH FITZGERALD, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., J.D., University of SUSAN FRIETSCHE, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., Bryn Mawr College; J.D., Temple MICHAEL GEORGE, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Bowling Green University; J.D., Duquesne JOHN P. GISMONDI, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of K. MARK HALL, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., Michigan State University; J.D., University of KEVIN C. HARKINS, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Pennsylvania State University; J.D., University of ROBERT T. HARPER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., Duke LEO HITT, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of Pittsburgh; LL.M., New York JOSEPH S. HORNACK, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., Miami University; J.D., Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. KENNETH J. HOROHO, JR., Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., St. Francis College; J.D., Duquesne THE HON. PHILIP A. IGNELZI, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S.B.A., University of Dayton; J.D., University of JOHN E. IOLE, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of STEPHEN R. KAUFMAN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Allegheny College; J.D., Harvard RICHARD P. KIDWELL, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Mount St. Mary's College; J.D., University of Maryland. MILES A. KIRSHNER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., George Washington University; J.D., University of GEORGE KONTOS, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of THE HON. BETH A. LAZZARA, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of LAWRENCE M. LEBOWITZ, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Pennsylvania; J.D., University of THE HON. LISA PUPO LENIHAN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of RICHARD C. LEVINE, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of PENINA K. LIEBER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., M.A., J.D., University of ALEXANDER H. LINDSAY, JR., Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Washington and Jefferson College; J.D., University of BLAINE A. LUCAS, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Pittsburgh; J.D., University of Virginia. KEVIN P. LUCAS, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Fordham University; J.D., University of Michigan. JOHN PATRICK LYDON, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Allegheny College; J.D., University of BEVERLY WEISS MANNE, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of JASON E. MATZUS, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Gettysburg College; J.D., University of REGIS M. McCLELLAND, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., Duquesne DAVID L. McCLENAHAN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., John Carroll University; J.D., Duquesne JOHN W. McILVAINE, III, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., Pennsylvania State University; J.D., Pepperdine JANICE McSHERRY, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., Colgate University; J.D., University of LAURA A. MEADEN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Case Western Reserve University; J.D., University of CHARLES H. MOELLENBERG, JR., Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Denison University; M.P.A., Princeton University; J.D., Columbia J. W. MONTGOMERY, III, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Virginia; J.D., College of William and Mary. REBECCA E. MORRIS-CHATTA, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., M.P.H., University of Washington; J.D., University of DEBORAH D. OLSZEWSKI, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of Pittsburgh; M.A., Edinboro State College. MICHAEL J. PANELLA, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., University of Michigan; M.D., Medical College of Pennsylvania; J.D., University of DIANE W. PERER, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., Vassar College; J.D., University of JON R. PERRY, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Pennsylvania State University; J.D., Duquesne STEPHEN M. PINCUS, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., University of Michigan; J.D., University of Maryland. LINDA PINGITORE, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., J.D., University of ELIZABETH J. POGGI, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Wheaton College; J.D., Duquesne J. MATTHEW PRITCHARD, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., Carnegie Mellon University; J.D., University of JEFFREY A. RAMALEY, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Pittsburgh; J.D., Duquesne ROBERT B. RAMSEY, III, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Delaware; J.D., St. Louis DIXON R. RICH, JR., Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., Lehigh University; J.D., Duquesne D. WES RIST, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Bob Jones University; J.D., University of Pittsburgh; LL.M., University of the West of England. MICHAEL J. ROESCHENTHALER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., The Pennsylvania State University; J.D., University of DAVID J. ROSENBERG, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Connecticut College; J.D., University of MICHAEL H. ROSENZWEIG, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of JOHN S. ROZEL, Adjunct Professor of Law. A.B., M.D., Brown University; M.S.L., University of ODAY SALIM, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., Wayne State University; LL.M., Lewis & Clark JENNIFER SATLER, Moot Court Program Coach. B.A., Bryn Mawr College; J.D., University of LINDA F. SCHNEIDER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S., M.B.A., J.D., University of THEODORE A. SCHROEDER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., J.D., University of VIRGINIA SPENCER SCOTT, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Allegheny College; J.D., University of JOSEPH W. SELEP, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; J.D., Ohio Northern LARRY A. SILVERMAN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Pittsburgh; J.D., Duquesne JENNIFER A. SMOKELIN, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.S.E., University of Pennsylvania; J.D., University of W. HENRY SNYDER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., University of Washington; J.D., Willamette University; LL.M., New York STEVEN M. STADTMILLER, Adjunct Professor of Law. B.B.A., University of Notre Dame;
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