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Global Information Assurance Certification Paper Copyright SANS Institute Author Retains Full Rights This paper is taken from the GIAC directory of certified professionals. Reposting is not permited without
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Global Information Assurance Certification Paper Copyright SANS Institute Author Retains Full Rights This paper is taken from the GIAC directory of certified professionals. Reposting is not permited without express written permission. Interested in learning more? Check out the list of upcoming events offering Security Essentials Bootcamp Style (Security 401) at Security Logs and Checkpoint Firewall-1 GSEC Practical Assignment, Version 1.2e John T. Ryan June 4, 2001 Introduction System and Security Logs are tools that are part of the Security Administrators arsenal to defend their network. In far too many instances, log servers are installed and logging activated, only to have the whole system soon forgotten about unless some catastrophic event happens that causes everyone to scramble to the logs to see what happened. Logging systems exist to allow the Security administrator to be proactive to Key vulnerabilities, fingerprint not = AF19 just to FA27 perform 2F94 forensics 998D FDB5 on. Security DE3D F8B5 logs 06E4 are your A169 sentries, 4E46 your early warning system- and in some cases your packet of money with a dye bomb attached. (Cheswick, p133) One of the first things an attacker will do is turn off logging, install a hacked daemon and erase all traces of themselves in the logs. Daily log inspection should be a task that every company dedicates resources to. The problem many administrators face is getting those resources allocated. IT organizations are constantly being asked to do more with less people. Procedures and tools need to be put into place to lessen the workload and allow an organization to be proactive. I will attempt to offer some solutions to help with Checkpoint s Firewall-1 product. Firewall-1 Logging Checkpoint Firewall-1 is a widely deployed firewall system. According to IDC, Checkpoint has a 41% market share. (Checkpoint Software) Even with the popularity of this product the logging system has not been well developed. There is a huge reliance on OPSEC (Open Platform for Security) products from third party vendors. Because of this, Firewall-1 provides minimal log reporting capabilities in the base product. Weaknesses of the logging system that come in the box include limited logging detail, limited Syslog support, and inconsistent log exporting. Firewall-1 provides limited logging detail. The software only logs the initial connection, a SYN/ACK. (Welch-Abernathy) This leaves you in the dark about what is happening after that connection is made. Firewall-1 does not give you any information on the data flowing through the connection or the subsequent traffic flowing through after the connection is made. Another issue with Firewall-1 is its limited Syslog support. The Syslog format is a widely accepted standard for writing system logs to a machine. It is possible to install a server Key running fingerprint syslogd = that AF19 will FA27 gather 2F94 Syslog 998D messages FDB5 DE3D from all F8B5 other 06E4 devices A169 that 4E46 have been told to send log information to it. It then becomes an easy task to run SWATCH for realtime checking of these logs to generate alerts or analysis. Checkpoint relies on add-on products and OPSEC providers to give you these capabilities. This capability comes at an 1 extra monetary cost. With the low priority that logs receive in many organizations it becomes hard to obtain management approval for purchasing these tools. Firewall-1 writes its logs in a binary format. To obtain the information contained in the logs, you must export them. Firewall-1 has a problem with exporting logs. During the export process, the data is output in a delimited format. The problem that occurs is the fields are not guaranteed to appear in the same order between log exports. It is not uncommon to perform log exports consecutively on different backups and have the fields output in a different order. Fortunately for the security administrator, there are tools that will reformat the output. (Spitzner) Log Maintenance Firewall-1 logs can grow very large. If you are using the Checkpoint GUI to view your logs, you will start to experience delays and even crashes if you try to view a log that is too large. The best practice is to write a batch file to perform a fw logswitch and then implement it on a daily basis through a cron job or using the NT scheduler facility. When a fw logswitch is performed the existing log is written to a new file named in this format, ddmmyyyy-hh:mm:ss.log. As an example, if it is May 23, 2001 at 1:00 am when the fw logswitch command is run, the resulting backup log will be named 23May :00:00.log. These backups can then be moved to another system or written to tape for archival purposes. The command for performing the fw logswitch is very simple. On a Solaris or IPSO or NT system; from the command line type, fw logswitch To schedule this in the Unix environment, implement the command in a cron job. Cron is the facility for performing commands or scripts at a certain time. A quick way to put this into a cron job is to type crontab e as the root user. This will open up the crontab file for the root user. Add the following line into the file. 0 1 * * * fw logswitch The format of this cron command is as follows, minute hour day month weekday command. The * stands for ANY. This job will be interpreted by the system as, Run the command fw logswitch at 1:00 am every day. To schedule this command in the NT environment you need to create a batch file with the fw logswitch command. Then go to Start:Programs:Accessories:System Tools:Scheduled Key Tasks, fingerprint run the Scheduled = AF19 FA27 Task 2F94 Wizard 998D and FDB5 enter DE3D the batch F8B5 file. 06E4 A169 4E46 2 Once your logs files have been written to a backup file you can begin to export them into an ASCII format so you may begin to analyze them. The command that accomplishes this is the fw logexport command. The format of this command is as follows: fw logexport d i input.file -o output.file n. The d switch specifies a delimiter character with the default being the semi-colon. The i switch specifies the input file and the o switch specifies the output file. The n switch tells the program to not perform any name resolution on the IP addresses. This will greatly speed up the export process. If you have the time and want to see the domain names instead of IP addresses you may omit this switch. One word of caution though, the size of the output files that get created grow an average of 2.5 times the input file. Make Key sure fingerprint there is room = AF19 on the FA27 drive. 2F94 My 998D logs average FDB5 DE3D 20 Megabytes F8B5 06E4 of data A169 a day. 4E46 Using the example of the file created above the command to export it would be this, fw logexport -d, -i 23May :00:00.log -o fwlog txt n This inputs the backup log file from May 23, 2001, and outputs it to the file fwlog txt, using a comma to separate the fields. The first record of the output file will contain the field names to simplify importing this file into other programs. It will be similar to the following though the order may be different. num, date, time, orig, type, action, alert, i/f_name, i/f_dir, proto, src, dst, service, s_port, len, rule, icmp-type, icmp-code, xlatesrc, xlatedst, xlatesport, xlatedport, message, user, reason, scheme:, methods:, srckeyid, dstkeyid, sys_msgs The following table defines the fields. num Record number date Date record was written time Time record was written orig Which firewall is writing the record type Log entry or Alert action Accept or Drop alert Kind of alert generated, if any i/f_name Firewall interface that the traffic was seen on i/f_dir In relation to the firewall, inbound or outbound Key proto fingerprint = AF19 FA27 2F94 998D FDB5 TCP, DE3D UDP, F8B5 ICMP 06E4 A169 4E46 src Source IP address dst Destination IP address service Destination port 3 s_port Source port len Packet length rule Firewall rule that triggered the log Entry icmp-type ICMP Type icmp-code ICMP Code xlatesrc NAT, the source IP that was translated xlatedst NAT, the destination IP that was translated xlatesport NAT, the translated source port xlatedport NAT, the translated destination port message Firewall message to explain an action user User authenticated by the Firewall reason Is Encryption happening, authentication? scheme: Encryption Scheme being used methods: Encryption protocol being used srckeyid Key scheme used by source IP dstkeyid Key scheme used by destination IP sys_msgs System messages Log Analysis Now that the log has been exported into an ASCII format, it is ready to undergo analysis. There are many tools available to manipulate flat file data. They range from spreadsheets to relational databases. MS Access is a nice solution to use for viewing and analyzing the firewall log data. It is easy to learn, deployed in the default image of many organizations and reasonably quick. It also contains an acceptable reporting capability to satisfy management. Because Firewall-1 has a tendency to export the fields in different orders, it is easiest to import the logs into MS Access on an individual basis. Again, there are tools available, to keep the logs in a consistent format. This would be good if you wanted to automate the import process or if you wanted to develop a database to track multiple logs from different firewalls. Importing the data into MS Access is relatively easy. As you step through the importing process make sure that all fields are set to text format. This will make queries much easier to perform and insure that all data is imported into the database. Once the data is in your database you can query it to view trends, and produce reports. There is a lot of information and the idea is to zero in on the important information to save time. The queries that are developed can be easily integrated into a report to get a quick view of the activity on your firewall. Some good places to look at for help to develop your queries are: 1) Cert.org, this page shows attack reports and port scan activity. 2) Incidents.org, this page shows high malicious activity. It is well organized. 4 3) Robert Graham s site, an excellent tutorial on ports and ICMP as well as other information. This site is highly recommended. 4) Lantz Spitzner s site, this site has a lot of good information on firewalls and the Honeynet Project. From visiting these sites the following list of queries were formed. 1) The top 5 IP addresses being dropped by my firewall. These addresses may possibly be attempting a scan of my network. 2) The top 10 IP addresses hitting my website. Key 3) fingerprint The top = 10 AF19 websites FA27 being 2F94 viewed 998D FDB5 by company DE3D employees. F8B5 06E4 (Spitzner) A169 4E46 4) Connection attempts from Port 0-5, because these are normally used in OS fingerprinting attacks. 5) Connection attempts from IP This is a common fingerprint technique. (Graham) 6) Attempted connections to ports 21/ FTP, 23/Telnet, 110/POP3, and 143/Imap. These services are not offered on my network and attempts to connect to these indicate a vulnerability probe. 7) Attempts to 111/RPCBind. This is a widespread automated attack and I check for it both incoming and outgoing because of the possibility of internal network machines being used as zombies. 8) ICMP types 0, 8 to the Firewall for Smurf attacks. 9) ICMP types 5, 9, redirect and router advertisement. Could be indicative of a man in the middle attack. 10) ICMP type 12. This is a parameter error message, which is highly unusual and may be indicative of an attack. 11) Port scans in the range of, This is the range of UNIX Trace Route ports and may indicate a mapping attempt through the Firewall. The first thing that must be done is to copy the imported log that you want to analyze to a table called Current-Log. This allows you to develop a set of queries that will work without being changed with every new log analysis. From this list a group of database queries were built to pull the relevant information from the database and output into a daily report. To develop a query in MS Access, from the main window click on Queries in the Objects Bar on the left side of the window. Then double-click on Create Query in design view in the main window. You will then see a screen like this: 5 You can then point and click to build the query. Using the criteria from list items 6 and 7, the completed query looks like this. After developing the queries in MS Access you can go to the Report Wizard and develop reports based upon your queries. Using the built in Wizards, this is an extremely simple task. 6 Summary Security logs are an important component of an organization s security policy. We activate them and let them gather data; we should take the time to review them. Firewall logs can alert us to ongoing attacks, probes, or even malfunctioning rule sets. Checkpoint Firewall-1 does not come with very good log reporting tools, but by taking a little time and performing some research, we can implement some working tools that let us affordably analyze our logs and produce reports that quickly let us visualize the possible Key dangers fingerprint to our networks. = AF19 FA27 2F94 998D FDB5 DE3D F8B5 06E4 A169 4E46 I was surprised at what I discovered by viewing my organization s firewall logs. We had a server that had been compromised and was trying to send rpcbind scans to outside IP addresses. Luckily the rule set was dropping those attempts. I was also surprised at the amount of probes and attempts against my network. The daily reporting has helped to awaken others in the organization and allowed changes to be budgeted for and made. The database developed during this project is freely available for download and improvements at 7 References Brandt, Ken and Green, Stu and Zuniga, Enrique. Battle Plans. Information Security March 2001: page Cambridge Technology Partners Enterprise Security Services Firewalk http://www.packetfactory.net/projects/firewalk/firewalk-final.html (31 May 2001). CERTCC CERT Coordination Center: Incidents, Quick Fixes, and Vulnerabilities http://www.cert.org/nav/index_red.html Key fingerprint (31 May = 2001). AF19 FA27 2F94 998D FDB5 DE3D F8B5 06E4 A169 4E46 Chaswick, William R. and Bellovin, Steven M. Firewalls and Internet Security - Repelling the Wily Hacker. Boston: Addison- Wesley, th Printing, Checkpoint Software Check Point Software Gains Nearly Ten Percent Additional Market Share in the Worldwide Firewall Market. http://www.checkpoint.com/press/2000/idc html (30 May 2001). Graham, Robert FAQ: Firewall Forensics (What am I seeing?). http://www.robertgraham.com/pubs/firewall-seen.html (29 May 2001). IANA IANA Protocol/Number Assignments Directory http://www.iana.org/numbers.htm (31 May 2001). Sans Institute incidents.org - By The SANS Institute: Consensus Intrusion Database http://www.incidents.org/cid/index.php (31 May 2001). Spitzner, Lance Lance s Security Papers. http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/ (2 June 2001). Welch-Abernathy, Dameon D. FireWall-1 FAQ: Drop Does Not Always Mean Drop http://www.phoneboy.com/faq/0134.html (31 May 2001). 8 Last Updated: March 1st, 2017 Upcoming Training Community SANS Chicago SEC401 Chicago, IL Mar 06, Mar 11, 2017 Community SANS SANS San Jose 2017 San Jose, CA Mar 06, Mar 11, 2017 Live Event SANS Secure Singapore 2017 Singapore, Singapore Mar 13, Mar 25, 2017 Live Event SANS London March 2017 London, United Mar 13, Mar 18, 2017 Live Event Kingdom SANS Secure Canberra 2017 Canberra, Australia Mar 13, Mar 25, 2017 Live Event SANS Tysons Corner Spring 2017 McLean, VA Mar 20, Mar 25, 2017 Live Event Mentor Session - SEC401 Orange County, CA Mar 21, Apr 20, 2017 Mentor SANS Abu Dhabi 2017 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Mar 25, Mar 30, 2017 Live Event Emirates SANS Pen Test Austin 2017 Austin, TX Mar 27, Apr 01, 2017 Live Event SANS Pen Test Austin SEC401: Security Essentials Austin, TX Mar 27, Apr 01, 2017 vlive Bootcamp Style Mentor Session - SEC401 Milwaukee, WI Mar 29, May 31, 2017 Mentor Community SANS San Francisco SEC401 San Francisco, CA Apr 03, Apr 08, 2017 Community SANS Mentor Session - SEC401 Hollywood, CA Apr 07, May 05, 2017 Mentor SANS 2017 Orlando, FL Apr 07, Apr 14, 2017 Live Event SANS vlive - SEC401: Security Essentials Bootcamp Style SEC , Apr 11, May 18, 2017 vlive Community SANS Cleveland SEC401 Cleveland, OH Apr 17, Apr 22, 2017 Community SANS Community SANS Norfolk SEC401 Norfolk, VA Apr 24, Apr 29, 2017 Community SANS SANS Baltimore Spring 2017 Baltimore, MD Apr 24, Apr 29, 2017 Live Event Mentor Session - SEC401 Edmonton, AB Apr 26, Jun 07, 2017 Mentor Community SANS Salt Lake City SEC401 Salt Lake City, UT May 01, May 06, 2017 Community SANS SANS Riyadh 2017 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia May 06, May 11, 2017 Live Event Community SANS Las Vegas SEC401 Las Vegas, NV May 08, May 13, 2017 Community SANS SANS Security West 2017 San Diego, CA May 09, May 18, 2017 Live Event Community SANS Baton Rouge SEC401 Baton Rouge, LA May 15, May 20, 2017 Community SANS Community SANS Columbia SEC401 Columbia, MD May 15, May 20, 2017 Community SANS SANS Northern Virginia - Reston 2017 Reston, VA May 21, May 26, 2017 Live Event SANS Melbourne 2017 Melbourne, Australia May 22, May 27, 2017 Live Event SANS London May 2017 London, United May 22, May 27, 2017 Live Event Kingdom SANS Stockholm 2017 Stockholm, Sweden May 29, Jun 03, 2017 Live Event SANS Atlanta 2017 Atlanta, GA May 30, Jun 04, 2017 Live Event SANS San Francisco Summer 2017 San Francisco, CA Jun 05, Jun 10, 2017 Live Event
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