Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany

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Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany Also by Ludger Helms EXECUTIVES IN WESTERN DEMOCRACIES PARTEIEN UND FRAKTIONEN: EIN INTERNATIONALER VERGLEICH (editor) WETTBEWERB
Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany Also by Ludger Helms EXECUTIVES IN WESTERN DEMOCRACIES PARTEIEN UND FRAKTIONEN: EIN INTERNATIONALER VERGLEICH (editor) WETTBEWERB UND KOOPERATION: ZUM VERHÄLTNIS VON REGIERUNGSMEHRHEIT UND OPPOSITION IM PARLAMENTARISCHEN GESETZGEBUNGSVERFAHREN IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK DEUTSCHLAND, GROßBRITANNIEN UND ÖSTERREICH Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany Edited by Ludger Helms Assistant Professor of Political Science Humboldt University of Berlin First published in Great Britain 2000 by MACMILLAN PRESS LTD Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and London Companies and representatives throughout the world A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / First published in the United States of America 2000 by ST. MARTIN S PRESS, INC., Scholarly and Reference Division, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Institutions and institutional change in the Federal Republic of Germany / edited by Ludger Helms p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Germany Politics and government 20th century. I. Helms, Ludger. JN3971.A58 I '0943'09045 dc Editorial matter, selection and Chapters 1 and 5 Ludger Helms 2000 Chapters 2 4, 6 10 Macmillan Press Ltd 2000 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 0LP. Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources Contents List of Figures List of Tables Preface List of Abbreviations Notes on the Contributors vii viii ix x xii 1 Introduction: Institutional Change and Adaptation in a Stable Democracy 1 Ludger Helms 2 The Bundestag Still the Centre of Decision-Making? 32 Klaus von Beyme 3 The Federal Presidency: Parameters of Presidential Power in a Parliamentary Democracy 48 Wolfgang Rudzio 4 The Federal Government: Variations of Chancellor Dominance 65 Karlheinz Niclauss 5 The Federal Constitutional Court: Institutionalising Judicial Review in a Semisovereign Democracy 84 Ludger Helms 6 The Federal System: Breaking through the Barriers of Interlocking Federalism? 105 Roland Sturm 7 The Electoral System: More Continuity than Change 124 Eckhard Jesse 8 Monetary Institutions: Maintaining Independence in Times of Fiscal Stress 143 Uwe Wagschal 9 Parties and the Party System: Pluralisation and Functional Change within Limits 166 Oskar Niedermayer v vi Contents 10 Interest Groups: Continuity and Change of German Lobbyism since Martin Sebaldt Bibliography 205 Index 226 List of Figures 8.1 Elections, Discount and Lombard variations (December 1948 October 1998) Fragmentation of the German party system (effective number of parties) Share of the vote for anti-system parties A model of interest group organisation in Germany 194 vii List of Tables 3.1 Incumbents and candidates for the federal presidency ( ) The federal government (May 1999) Chairmen and presidents of the Central Bank Council and the Directorate Elections, variations of interest rates and political business cycle ( ) Average Discount rates under different political conditions (September 1949 October 1998) Officially registered German interest groups ( ) German interest groups according to economic sectors ( ) German interest groups devoted to the neutralisation of external and internal societal risks ( ) Institutionalised contacts between the government and interest groups and their importance in lobbyists views Other political actors and their importance for the lobby work of German interest groups 200 viii Preface Since unification, German politics has clearly become one of those subjects that have attracted growing attention among foreign scholars of comparative politics. While international research on the Federal Republic has significantly prospered over the past decade, the Germanlanguage literature on the German system of government and the somewhat smaller English-language body of research on the Federal Republic are still marked by a kind of co-existence rather than unrestricted mutual exchange a fact that can at least partly be explained by the continuing language barriers. This volume contains a collection of original essays written by German specialists, many of whom have long dominated the debate in their respective area of research at home without presenting their insights to a larger English-speaking community of scholars. The common perspective of the individual chapters is on continuity and change of the core institutions of the German polity. What general developmental direction have German political institutions taken during the past half-century? Does it appear reasonable to consider the political system of the Federal Republic as an island of institutional stability, as many foreign observers suggest? And what impact has unification had on the working of German political institutions? As the initiator and editor of this volume I have probably accumulated more debts than any other participant in this project. In particular I would like to thank Klaus von Beyme and Manfred G. Schmidt for their comments on earlier drafts of the introductory chapter. Parts of Chapters 1 and 5 were written during my time as a Visiting Researcher in the Department of Government at the London School of Economics and Political Science, August 1997 June I feel indebted to the German Academic Exchange Service for granting me an unusually generous post-doctoral research scholarship. The editorial work on this volume would not have been finished on time without the kindness and patience of my former colleagues in the Department of Political Science at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna. My special thanks go to Niken Sri Mastuti who undertook the main body of typing work for this volume and worked tirelessly checking the numerous revisions. Berlin LUDGER HELMS ix List of Abbreviations BdL Bank Deutscher Länder (Bank of the German Länder) BDI Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie (Federal Association of the German Industry) BND Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service) BVerfGE Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts (Decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court) CDU Christlich Demokratische Union (Christian Democratic Union) COREPER Committee of Permanent Representatives of the National Governments CSU Christlich-Soziale Union (Christian-Social Union) DBB Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank) DBD Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (Democratic Peasants Party of Germany) DDP Deutsche Demokratische Partei (German Democratic Party) DGB Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (Federation of German Trade Unions) DNVP Deutschnationale Volkspartei (German National People s Party) DP Deutsche Partei (German Party) EMU European Monetary Union ESCB European System of Central Banks EU European Union ECB European Central Bank FCCA Federal Constitutional Court Act FDP Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party) GDR German Democratic Republic JCC Joint Constitutional Convention KPD Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (Communist Party of Germany) MP Member of Parliament NDPD National-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands (National Democratic Party of Germany) NSDAP Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers Party) x List of Abbreviations xi OECD Organistion for Economic Co-operation and Development PBC Political Business Cycle PDS Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus (Party of Democratic Socialism) PPBC Partisan Political Business Cycle SED Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) SPD Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany) USPD Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) LDP Liberal-Demokratische Partei (Liberal Democratic Party) VAT Value Added Tax ZBR Zentralbankrat (Central Bank Council) Notes on the Contributors Klaus von Beyme is Professor of Political Science at the University of Heidelberg and former president of the International Political Science Association. He has written extensively on comparative European and German politics as well as political theory. His publications include The Political System of the Federal Republic of Germany (1983), The Transition to Democracy in Eastern Europe (1997), The Legislator: German Parliament as a Centre of Political Decision-Making (1998), and Parlament und Regierung: Die Demokratisierung der parlamentarischen Systeme (1999). Ludger Helms is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the Humboldt-University of Berlin. He has published widely in journals and books on various aspects of German politics and comparative politics. His main publications include Wettbewerb und Kooperation: Zum Verhältnis von Regierungsmehrheit und Opposition im parlamentarischen Gesetzgebungsverfahren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Großbritannien und Österreich (1997), (editor) Parteien und Fraktionen: Ein internationaler Vergleich (1999), and Executives in Western Democracies: A Comparative Study of the United States, Great Britain and Germany (forthcoming). Eckhard Jesse is Professor of Political Science at the University of Chemnitz. He has published extensively in the areas of German politics and political extremism in Western democracies. Among his major publications are Elections: The Federal Republic of Germany in Comparison (1990), (co-editor) Die Gestaltung der deutschen Einheit (1992), (editor) Totalitarismus im 20. Jahrhundert (1996, 2nd edn 1999), (co-editor) Wahlen in Deutschland (1998), and Die Demokratie der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (8th edn, 1997). He is also co-editor of the annually published Jahrbuch Extremismus & Demokratie. Karlheinz Niclauss is Professor of Political Science at the University of Bonn. He has published widely on German politics, German post-war history and comparative politics. His major publications include Kanzlerdemokratie. Bonner Regierungspraxis von Konrad Adenauer bis Helmut Kohl (1988), Das Parteiensystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1996), and Der Weg zum Grundgesetz: Demokratiegründung in Westdeutschland (1998). xii Notes on the Contributors xiii Oskar Niedermayer is Professor of Political Science at the Free University of Berlin. He has published extensively on political parties in Germany and Western Europe. Among his main publications are Europäische Parteien? (1983), Innerparteiliche Demokratie (1989), (coeditor) Stand und Perspektiven der Parteienforschung in Deutschland (1993), (co-editor) Public Opinion and Internationalized Governance (1996), and (co-editor) Parteiendemokratie in Deutschland (1997). Wolfgang Rudzio is Professor of Political Science at the University of Oldenburg. He has published widely in the field of German politics. He is the author of Die organisierte Demokratie: Parteien und Verbände in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (2nd edn, 1982), Die Erosion der Abgrenzung: zum Verhältnis zwischen der demokratischen Linken und Kommunisten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1988), and Das politische System der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (4th edn, 1996). Martin Sebaldt is Privatdozent at the University of Passau. His major publications are Die Thematisierungsfunktion der Opposition. Die parlamentarische Minderheit des Deutschen Bundestages als innovative Kraft im politischen System der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1992) and Organisierter Pluralismus: Kräftefeld, Selbstverständnis und politische Arbeit deutscher Interessengruppen (1997). Roland Sturm is Professor of Political Science at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Most of his published work has been concerned with comparative politics; policy studies; political economy; and European, British and German politics. Among his most recent books are Großbritannien: Wirtschaft Gesellschaft Politik (2nd edn, 1997), (co-author) Koalitionen and Koalitionsvereinbarungen: Theorie, Analyse und Dokumentation (1998), and Public Deficits (1999). Uwe Wagschal is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Bremen. He specialises in comparative politics and public policy research. His major publications include Staatsverschuldung: Ursachen im internationalen Vergleich (1996) and Statistik für Politikwissenschaftler (1999).
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