GEOGRAFI TANAMAN DI BIOREGION WALLACE

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GEOGRAFI TANAMAN DI BIOREGION WALLACE Johny S. Tasirin & Martina A. Langi TROPICAL PLANT CURRICULUM PROJECT Kerjasama UNIVERSITAS SAM RATULANGI Dan TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DISCLAIMER This module is
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GEOGRAFI TANAMAN DI BIOREGION WALLACE Johny S. Tasirin & Martina A. Langi TROPICAL PLANT CURRICULUM PROJECT Kerjasama UNIVERSITAS SAM RATULANGI Dan TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY DISCLAIMER This module is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of Texas A&M University and Sam Ratulangi University as the USAID Tropical Plant Curriculum Project partners and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government. Kata Pengantar Puji Syukur Kehadirat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, atas hikmat dan pertolongannya sehingga penyusunan modul ini dapat terselesaikan. Terima kasih disampaikan kepada USAID dan Universitas TEXAS A&M atas dukungan dana bagi penyusunan modul ini. Modul ini ditujukan sebagai bahan ajar Keanekaragaman hayati. Modul ini dapat digunakan oleh tenaga pengajar (dosen) maupun mahasiswa sebagai bahan acuan untuk memperkaya pengetahuan terkait Keanekaragaman hayati tumbuhan dan mengenal keanekaragaman tumbuhan di daerah tropis. Penyusunan Modul ini masih banyak kekurangan. Untuk itu kritik dan saran yang membangun sangat kami butuhkan untuk penyempurnaan modul ini. Terima kasih, Penyusun 3 Deskripsi Ekoregion di Kawasan Wallacea 1. Halmahera rain forests 2. Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests 3. Buru rain forests 4. Lesser Sundas deciduous forests 5. Seram rain forests 6. Sulawesi lowland rain forests 7. Sulawesi montane rain forests 8. Sumba deciduous forests 9. Timor and Wetar deciduous forests 10. Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests 11. Mindanao montane rain forests 12. Mindoro rain forests 13. Luzon montane rain forests 14. Luzon tropical pine forests 15. Luzon rain forests 16. Palawan rain forests 17. Sulu Archipelago rain forests 4 1. Halmahera rain forests Halmahera, Indonesia Photograph by Vincent Roelofs This ecoregion comprises the original Spice Islands. The tropical islands that constitute the complex and mountainous terrain of the Halmahera Rain Forests are an important part of the region known as Wallacea, which contains a very distinctive fauna representing a mix of Asian and Australasian species. This small ecoregion contains an astounding twenty-six bird species, including four monotypic genera, which are found nowhere else in the world. Although there is some exploitation by logging and mining companies, extensive blocks of habitat still cover all the islands, and nearly 80 percent of its original forest still intact. Southeastern Asia: Islands of Halmahera, Moratai, and Obi in Indonesia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests 10,400 square miles (26,900 square kilometers) -- about the size of Maryland Relatively Stable/Intact Location and General Description This ecoregion represents the moist forests on Halmahera, Morotai, Obi, Bacan, and the other nearby Maluku Islands in the northeastern Indonesian Archipelago. Based on the Köppen climate zone system, this ecoregion falls in the tropical wet climate zone (National Geographic Society 1999). The geologic history of these islands is a very complex mixture of inner volcanic island arcs, outer volcanic island arcs, raised coral reefs, and fragments of continental crust. Halmahera is a product of a collision between two islands approximately 1-2 million years ago. The eastern half of the island was part of an outer arc on the Philippines tectonic plate and consists of sedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks. The western half of Halmahera and Morotai was part of an inner arc consisting of volcanic materials. Bacan is a mixture of volcanic inner island arc and some crustal materials (Monk et al. 1997). The natural vegetation of these islands was tropical lowland evergreen and semievergreen forest (Stattersfield et al. 1998). Most of the remaining habitat in this ecoregion is semi-evergreen rain forest and includes eight characteristic dipterocarp species: Anisoptera thurifera, Hopea gregaria, H. iriana, H. novoguineensis, Shorea assamica, S. montigena, S. selanica, and Vatica rassak. Volcanic soils and good aspect combine to produce almost optimal growth conditions. Most of the trees reach 30 m or more and carry thick-stemmed lianas and woody and herbaceous epiphytes. Rattans that grow to 130 m and other epiphytes are common in old-growth forests. The most luxuriant rain forests occur in northwest Morotai and north Halmahera, as opposed to the south arm of Halmahera, which is in the rain shadow of north Halmahera and Bacan. Low, shrubby vegetation is found in poor soil conditions on patches of ultrabasic rocks (Monk et al. 1997). 5 Biodiversity Features Overall diversity is low in this ecoregion, but overall endemism is moderate to high when compared with that of other ecoregions in Indo-Malaysia. This ecoregion falls within the Wallacean biogeographic zone, and thus exhibits a mixture of Asian and Australian fauna. Together with Seram, Buru, and the Banda Sea Islands, this island group forms part of a bioregion with perhaps the highest levels of bird endemism for its size anywhere in the world and the highest number of endemic birds of any area in Asia. The mammal fauna is depauperate, containing only thirty-eight species with both Asian and Australasian affinities (cuscuses), but includes eight ecoregional endemics (table 1). The Obi cuscus (Phalanger rothschildi) is considered vulnerable (IUCN 2000). Table 1. Endemic and Near-Endemic Mammal Species. Family Phalangeridae Phalangeridae Phalangeridae Pteropodidae Pteropodidae Pteropodidae Species Phalanger ornatus* Phalanger rothschildi* Phalanger sp.* Pteropus chrysoproctus Pteropus personatus* Nyctimene minutus Melomys obiensis* Rattus sp.* An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion. The ecoregion supports approximately 223 bird species, including 43 ecoregional endemic species (table 2). The ecoregion corresponds with the Northern Maluku EBA. There are four endemic monotypic genera: Habroptila, Melitorgrais, Lycocorax, and Semioptera. These species include the invisible rail (Habroptila wallacii), white-streaked friarbird (Melitograis gilolensis), paradise-crow (Lycocorax pyrrhopterus), and the standardwing (Semioptera wallacii). Of the forty-three restricted-range species found in this ecoregion (and EBA), an astounding twenty-six are found nowhere else in the world. Five vulnerable species, four of which are found nowhere else, are found in the ecoregion: invisible rail (Habroptila wallacii), caranculated fruit-dove (Ptilinopus granulifrons), chattering lory (Lorius garrulus), and white cockatoo (Cacatua alba) 6 (Stattersfield et al. 1998). Table 2. Endemic and Near-Endemic Bird Species. Family Common Name Species Accipitridae Moluccan goshawk Accipiter henicogrammus* Accipitridae Rufous-necked sparrowhawk Accipiter erythrauchen Megapodiidae Moluccan scrubfowl Megapodius wallacei Megapodiidae Dusky scrubfowl Megapodius freycinet Rallidae Invisible rail Habroptila wallacii* Scolopacidae Moluccan woodcock Scolopax rochussenii* Columbidae Scarlet-breasted fruit-dove Ptilinopus bernsteinii* Columbidae Blue-capped fruit-dove Ptilinopus monacha* Columbidae Grey-headed fruit-dove Ptilinopus hyogastra* Columbidae Carunculated fruit-dove Ptilinopus granulifrons* Columbidae White-eyed imperial-pigeon Ducula perspicillata Columbidae Spice imperial-pigeon Ducula myristicivora Columbidae Pink-headed imperial-pigeon Ducula rosacea Columbidae Cinnamon-bellied imperial-pigeon Ducula basilica* Psittacidae Moluccan hanging-parrot Loriculus amabilis Cacatuidae White cockatoo Cacatua alba* Loriidae Violet-necked lory Eos squamata Loriidae Chattering lory Lorius garrulus* Cuculidae Moluccan cuckoo Cacomantis heinrichi* Cuculidae Pied bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx crassirostris 7 Cuculidae Goliath coucal Centropus goliath* Strigidae Moluccan hawk-owl Ninox squamipila Aegothelidae Moluccan owlet-nightjar Aegotheles crinifrons* Alcedinidae Blue-and-white kingfisher Todirhamphus diops* Alcedinidae Sombre kingfisher Todirhamphus funebris* Coraciidae Purple roller Eurystomus azureus* Pittidae Ivory-breasted pitta Pitta maxima* Meliphagidae Olive honeyeater Lichmera argentauris Meliphagidae White-streaked friarbird Melitograis gilolensis* Meliphagidae Dusky friarbird Philemon fuscicapillus* Pachycephalida Drab whistler Pachycephala griseonota Monarchidae White-naped monarch Monarcha pileatus Monarchidae Moluccan flycatcher Myiagra galeata Corvidae Long-billed crow Corvus validus* Paradisaeidae Paradise-crow Lycocorax pyrrhopterus* Paradisaeidae Wallace's standardwing Semioptera wallacii* Oriolidae Halmahera oriole Oriolus phaeochromus* Campephagidae Moluccan cuckoo-shrike Coracina atriceps Campephagidae Halmahera cuckoo-shrike Coracina parvula* Campephagidae Pale-grey cuckoo-shrike Coracina ceramensis Campephagidae Rufous-bellied triller Lalage aurea* Zosteropidae Cream-throated white-eye Zosterops atriceps* Dicaeidae Flame-breasted flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrothorax An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion. 8 The world's largest bee-the rare, 4-cm Wallace's giant bee Chalocodoma pluto-is also found on Bacan, Tidore, and Halmahera. Wallace discovered this species in 1858, and it was thought to be extinct until 1981, when it was recollected. This ecoregion also has conservation importance for butterflies and includes Troides aesacus, which may be the most primitive member of the T. priamus species group (Whitten and Whitten 1992; K. Monk, pers. comm., 2000). Current Status The rich volcanic soils of Ternate, Tidore, and nearby islands have been aggressively cultivated for cloves and other spices for centuries (Stattersfield et al. 1998). From the 1920s through the 1970s, commercial logging and enforced cultivation depleted the forests of Halmahera and Morotai (Monk et al. 1997). On Morotai, large tracts of lowland rain forest were cultivated with papaya (Carica papaya) during World War II (Monk et al. 1997). Currently, the wet evergreen lowland forests in the northwest of Halmahera are exploited by logging companies, primarily for the valuable damar trees (Agathis) (Whitten and Whitten 1992). The eastern forests are threatened by pulp plantations, especially using local transmigrants. Extensive habitat blocks still cover all the islands, with only small areas near the coast cleared for human settlements (Monk et al. 1997). The seven protected areas cover 4,880 km 2 (18 percent) of the ecoregion area (table 3). Three protected areas are greater than 1,000 km 2 in area, and the average size is 697 km 2. Table 3. WCMC (1997) Protected Areas That Overlap with the Ecoregion. Protected Area Area (km 2 ) IUCN Category Waya Bula 830 PRO Lolabata 1,210 PRO Gunung Gamkonora 110 PRO Ake Tajawi 1,200 PRO Saketa 1,100 PRO Gunung Sibela 300 PRO Pulau Obi 130 PRO Total 4,880 Ecoregion numbers of protected areas that overlap with additional ecoregions are listed in brackets. 9 Types and Severity of Threats With nearly 80 percent of its original forest still intact, the Halmahera Rain Forests [AA0106] ecoregion is largely free of intense habitat conversion threats. However, as the forests are lost on other Indonesian islands, there is an increasing potential for commercial forestry operations to move to Halmahera. A mining company, PT Halmahera Mineral (NHM), has already obtained an exploration license for Bacan and neighboring islands to look for gold and other minerals. A Canadian mining company has a license to mine nickel near Ake Tajawi on Halmahera (K. Monk, pers. comm., 2000). Justification of Ecoregion Delineation The Sula Islands were included within the Sulawesi Lowland Rain Forests, and the Aru islands in the Vogelkop-Aru Lowland Rain Forests. Buru Island, identified as a distinct subunit (13c) by MacKinnon (1997) and as an EBA (Stattersfield et al. 1998), was delineated as a distinct ecoregion, the Buru Rain Forests. Seram, the larger island to the east of Buru, was also delineated as an ecoregion: Seram Rain Forests. The larger Halmahera Rain Forests ecoregion includes Obi Island, which MacKinnon (1997) recognized as a separate subunit (13b) from Halmahera Island (subunit 13a). We created the Banda Sea Islands Moist Deciduous Forests by combining the islands in the Kai and Tanimbar archipelagos, which were distinguished as a biogeographic unit by Monk et al. (1997). The primary vegetation on the islands in both these archipelagos is moist deciduous forests and semi-evergreen forests, whereas the vegetation in the other, nearby large islands (Seram and Aru) is evergreen rain forests (Monk et al. 1997). References References for this ecoregion are currently consolidated in one document for the entire Indo-Pacific realm. Indo-Pacific Reference List This text was originally published in the book Terrestrial ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a conservation assessment from Island Press. This assessment offers an in-depth analysis of the biodiversity and conservation status of the Indo-Pacific's ecoregions. For more general information on this ecoregion, go to the WildWorld version of this description. All text by World Wildlife Fund Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests 10 Banda Islands, Indonesia Photograph by Anasia-Cruise Southeastern Asia: Small islands scattered across the Banda Sea in Indonesia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests The Banda Sea Islands Moist Deciduous Forests are found on small islands scattered across the Banda Sea and are part of the region known as Wallacea, which contains a distinctive fauna representing a mix of Asian and Australasian species. Active volcanoes are found on the Banda Islands, whereas other parts of the ecoregion represent portions of the Australian continent that have been torn off. The islands contain a remarkable twenty-one bird species found nowhere else on Earth. The forests in this ecoregion are still largely intact, but although many of these islands are tiny and uninhabitable, the bird populations are seriously threatened by accidentally released rats and cats and by the removal of their eggs for sale by fishers traveling through this area. Location and General Description This ecoregion represents the moist deciduous and limestone forests of Tanimbar, Kai, Banda, and smaller island groups in the Banda Sea, part of the eastern Indonesian Archipelago. Based on the Köppen climate zone system, this ecoregion falls in the tropical wet climate zone (National Geographic Society 1999). Geologically, the islands have a mixed history. The Banda Islands are part of the inner arc, whereas the rest of the ecoregion is part of the outer arc. The inner arc islands are a result of the subduction and partial melting of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate below the Eurasian plate. The inner arc islands represent young volcanoes that have coalesced with lava and sediment. The volcanically active Mt. Api is found in the Banda Islands, which represent the ruins of a very large volcano that erupted in prehistory. The basement rock of the outer islands, on the other hand, is composed of actual continental margin from the Australian plate that has not been subducted. These outer islands are less than 4 million years old. The resulting surface geology consists of complex sedimentary and metamorphic rocks: uplifted coral reefs over complex basement rocks (Monk et al. 1997). In the south the forest biogeography of the Moluccas differs from that associated with the classic dipterocarp forests of Borneo or Sumatra. Northern Maluku has relatively similar dipterocarp forests. Many of the dipterocarp species have been replaced by dominants more typical of the Australo-Melanesian area. The forests of this ecoregion are varied but include evergreen rain forest (Kepulauan Kai), semi-evergreen rain forest, moist deciduous forest, and dry deciduous forest (Monk et al. 1997). Biodiversity Features 2,900 square miles (7,500 square kilometers) -- about half the size of Hawaii Vulnerable The mammal fauna consists of twenty-two species with both Asian and 11 Australasian affinities, and three species are endemic (table 1) (Flannery 1995). The Moluccan mouse-eared bat (Myotis stalkeri) is endangered, whereas the dusky pademelon (Thylogale bruinii) and brown-bearded sheathtail bat (Taphozous achates) are considered vulnerable (IUCN 2000). The dusky pademelon is the only macropodid (kangaroo) found in the Banda Sea islands (Kai), although it is also found in the Aru Islands and the Trans Fly of New Guinea (Flannery 1995). Table 1. Endemic and Near-Endemic Mammal Species. Family Macropodidae Vespertilionidae Emballonuridae Species Thylogale bruinii Myotis stalkeri* Taphozous achates* An asterisk signifies that the species' range is limited to this ecoregion. Together with Halmahera, Buru, and Seram islands, this ecoregion lies within an area with perhaps the highest levels of bird endemism for its size anywhere in the world and the highest number of endemic birds of any area in Asia. Even the smallest, uninhabitable islands are significant as breeding sites for large numbers of seabirds such as frigatebirds, tropicbirds, boobies, terns, and smaller species (Whitten and Whitten 1992). Manuk Island and Mt. Api (north of Wetar), two nature reserves in the Banda Sea, are the breeding and roosting sites for millions of seabirds. Active volcanoes, they are probably the greatest bird islands left in all southeast Asia (Whitten and Whitten 1992; Monk et al. 1997). This ecoregion contains more than 225 species of terrestrial birds, of which forty-three are endemic or near endemic (table 2). This ecoregion corresponds with the Banda Sea Islands EBA, which contains forty-one restricted-range species, and includes eighteen species that are found nowhere else on Earth (Stattersfield et al. 1998). Only one of these species, the Damar flycatcher (Ficedula henrici), is considered threatened. Table 2. Endemic and Near-Endemic Bird Species. Family Common Name Species Megapodiidae Tenimbar megapode Megapodius tenimberensis* Megapodiidae Forsten's scrubfowl Megapodius forstenii Columbidae Dusky cuckoo-dove Macropygia magna Columbidae Wallace's fruit-dove Ptilinopus wallacii 12 Columbidae Pink-headed imperial-pigeon Ducula rosacea Cacatuidae Tanimbar cockatoo Cacatua goffini* Loriidae Red lory Eos bornea Loriidae Blue-streaked lory Eos reticulata* Loriidae Olive-headed lorikeet Trichoglossus euteles Cuculidae Green-cheeked bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx rufomerus* Cuculidae Pied bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx crassirostris Cuculidae Kai coucal Centropus spilopterus* Strigidae Moluccan hawk-owl Ninox squamipila Tytonidae Lesser masked-owl Tyto sororcula Alcedinidae Cinnamon-backed kingfisher Todirhamphus australasia Acanthizidae Rufous-sided gerygone Gerygone dorsalis Meliphagidae White-tufted honeyeater Lichmera squamata Meliphagidae Banda myzomela Myzomela boiei* Meliphagidae Black-faced friarbird Philemon moluccensis Eopsaltriidae Golden-bellied flyrobin Microeca hemixantha* Pachycephalida Drab whistler Pachycephala griseonota Pachycephalida Wallacean whistler Pachycephala arctitorquis* Rhipiduridae Cinnamon-tailed fantail Rhipidura fuscorufa* Rhipiduridae Long-tailed fantail Rhipidura opistherythra* Monarchidae White-naped monarch Monarcha pileatus Monarchidae Black-bibbed monarch Monarcha mundus* Monarchidae White-tailed monarch Monarcha leucurus* 13 Monarchidae Moluccan flycatcher Myiagra galeata Oriolidae Buru oriole Oriolus bouroensis Campephagidae Kai cuckoo-shrike Coracina dispar* Turdidae Slaty-backed thrush Zoothera schistacea* Turdidae Orange-banded thrush Zoothera peronii Turdidae Fawn-breasted thrush Zoothera machiki* Sturnidae Tanimbar starling Aplonis crassa* Muscicapidae Cinnamon-chested flycatcher Ficedula buruensis Muscicapidae Damar flycatcher Ficedula henrici* Zosteropidae Great Kai white-eye Zosterops grayi* Zosteropidae Little Kai white-eye Zosterops uropygialis* Sylviidae Timor stubtail Urosphena
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