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Part A: Authors: William F. McComas Michael P. CloughHiya Almazroa Title: The Role and Character of the Nature of Science in Science Education Year: 1998 Journal Name: The Nature of Science and Science Education Volume: 5 Page Numbers: 3-39 URL: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/0-306-47215-5_1#citeas Authors: William F. McComas Title: Ten Myths of Science: Reexamining What We Think We Know About the Nature of Science Year: January 1, 1996 Journal Name: School Science and Mathematics
Transcript
  Part A: Authors:  William F. McComas Michael P. CloughHiya Almazroa  Title:  The Role and Character of the Nature of Science in Science Education  Year: 1998 Journal Name:  The Nature of Science and Science Education Volume : 5 Page Numbers:  3-39 URL:  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/0-306-47215-5_1#citeas  Authors: William F. McComas Title: Ten Myths of Science: Reexamining What We Think We Know About the Nature of Science  Year: January 1, 1996  Journal Name: School Science and Mathematics  Volume:  96  Page Numbers: 10-16  URL: http://people.nnu.edu/jocossel/BIOL1010/Myths%20of%20Science.pdf  Authors: William F McComas, Linda Abraham   Title: Asking more effective questions Year: 2004  Journal Name: Rossier School of Education  Volume: not stated  Page  Numbers: 1-16  URL: http://www.nevadastemproject.org/Asking_Better_Questions.pdf  Summary:  In this article, McComas and Abraham discuss the ways to ask more effective questions in a way to make conversations betters or dive into deeper thought. They stated that questions can be places into four quadrants: high or low order and either convergent and divergent. Low order is the simple questions very straight to the point “ what color is the lion” but high order questions require the student to elaborate more “ why do you think the lion is that color?” Convergent questions allows students to make other examples and no srcinal thought really needed, while divergent questions allows the student to use the question in a scenario. Another way that was discussed to bring about good questioning was the 3 intersecting circles. Each circle represents something as: The Matter ( the subject) , The Personal Reality ( the students relationship with subject), and The External Reality (broader perspective). It was stated that best questions were the higher-order questions, which were located of the circles overlapping.  Part B: Authors:  Ashburner M, Ball CA, et al. Title:  Gene Ontology: tool for the unification of biology  Year:  May 2000 Journal Name:  Nature Genetics Volume : could not find Page Numbers:  25-29 URL:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3037419/  Authors:  Michael Brownlee Title:  Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications Year:  December 2001 Journal Name:  Nature: International Journal of science  Volume:  414 Page Number:  813-820 URL:  https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/01b9/2c1ee816e31c9d2b154e7064b05c285f2a49.pdf   Authors:  Hiroaki Kitano Title:  Systems Biology: A Brief Overview Year:  March 1, 2002 Journal Name:  Science Volume:  295 Page Numbers:  1662-1664 URL: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/295/5560/1662.full?casa_token=yFfwNPUJBCUAAAAA:NWZ0OxzFsWUodNAbzueE3VbDBInkDvIpBno02a4kh-znRsf10vcPQ-smUTvuG0EiutYNdiCkOYRW8dec  Summary:  In the article Systems Biology, Kitano writes about system-level understanding about biology. This means looking at the structure and function of the system more than the cells and proteins. The author describes it as an airplane, if you have all the parts (genes and proteins), but don’t how to work the plane or fly it (structure and function) what is the point. System-level understanding is put into 4 categories: System structure, system dynamics, the control methods, and design methods. The article also talks about robustness being essential for biological systems. Robustness can be seen in biological systems by: adaptation (ability to cope with environmental changes),  parameter insensitivity, and graceful degradation (a systems function after damage).
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