CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide

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CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Kevin Wallace, CCIE No Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN ii CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide CCNP TSHOOT
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CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Kevin Wallace, CCIE No Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 ii CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Kevin Wallace, CCIE No Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America Eighth Printing: August 2013 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Wallace, Kevin, CCNP. CCNP TSHOOT official certification guide / Kevin Wallace. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN-13: ISBN-10: Computer networks Management Examinations Study guides. 2. Telecommunications engineers Certification. 3. Cisco Systems, Inc. Examinations Study guides. I. Title. TK C57W dc22 Warning and Disclaimer This book is designed to provide information about the CCNP TSHOOT Exam (Exam ) for the CCNP Routing and Switching certification. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an as is basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc. Trademark Acknowledgments All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc., cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Corporate and Government Sales The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales, which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business, training goals, marketing focus, and branding interests. For more information, please contact: U.S. Corporate and Government Sales For sales outside the United States please contact: International Sales iii Feedback Information At Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Each book is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. Readers feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contact us through at Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. We greatly appreciate your assistance. Publisher: Paul Boger Associate Publisher: Dave Dusthimer Executive Editor: Brett Bartow Managing Editor: Patrick Kanouse Senior Project Editor: Tonya Simpson Business Operation Manager, Cisco Press: Anand Sundaram Manager Global Certification: Erik Ullanderson Copy Editors: Gill Editorial Services and Water Crest Publishing, Inc. Technical Editor: Elan Beer Proofreader: Williams Woods Publishing Services, LLC Senior Development Editor: Christopher Cleveland Editorial Assistant: Vanessa Evans Book Designer: Louisa Adair Composition: Mark Shirar Indexer: Tim Wright iv CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide About the Author Kevin Wallace, CCIE No. 7945, is a certified Cisco instructor who holds multiple Cisco certifications, including CCSP, CCVP, CCNP, and CCDP, in addition to multiple security and voice specializations. With Cisco experience dating back to 1989 (beginning with a Cisco AGS+ running Cisco IOS 7.x), Kevin has been a network design specialist for the Walt Disney World Resort, a senior technical instructor for SkillSoft/Thomson NETg/KnowledgeNet, and a network manager for Eastern Kentucky University. Kevin holds a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kentucky. Kevin has authored multiple books for Cisco Press, including Routing Video Mentor and TSHOOT Video Mentor, both of which target the current CCNP Routing and Switching certification. Kevin lives in central Kentucky with his wife (Vivian) and two daughters (Stacie and Sabrina). About the Technical Reviewer Elan Beer, CCIE No. 1837, CCSI No , is a senior consultant and Certified Cisco Instructor. His internetworking expertise is recognized internationally through his global consulting and training engagements. As one of the industry s top internetworking consultants and Cisco instructors, Elan has used his expertise for the past 17 years to design, implement, and deploy multiprotocol networks for a wide international clientele. As a senior instructor and course developer, Elan has designed and presented public and implementation-specific technical courses spanning many of today s top technologies. Elan specializes in MPLS, BGP, QoS, and other Internetworking technologies. v Dedications This book is dedicated to my family. To my beautiful wife Vivian, you have an unbelievably giving spirit. To my daughter Sabrina, you have a keen business mind at only 12 years of age. You re destined for big things. To my daughter Stacie, at the age of 14, you radiate happiness and are maturing into a wonderful young lady. Acknowledgments My thanks go out to the team of professionals at Cisco Press. I m proud to be associated with such a respected organization. My family is unbelievably supportive of my writing efforts. Thank you to my wife, Vivian, and my daughters, Sabrina and Stacie. You all have been very understanding when I seclude myself to write. Also, I m grateful to God for surrounding me with such quality people, both personally and professionally. vi CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Contents at a Glance Foreword Introduction xvii xviii Chapter 1 Introduction to Network Maintenance 3 Chapter 2 Introduction to Troubleshooting Processes 27 Chapter 3 The Maintenance and Troubleshooting Toolbox 51 Chapter 4 Basic Cisco Catalyst Switch Troubleshooting 79 Chapter 5 Advanced Cisco Catalyst Switch Troubleshooting 107 Chapter 6 Introduction to Troubleshooting Routing Protocols 139 Chapter 7 OSPF and Route Redistribution Troubleshooting 167 Chapter 8 Troubleshooting BGP and Router Performance Issues 225 Chapter 9 Security Troubleshooting 267 Chapter 10 IP Services Troubleshooting 299 Chapter 11 IP Communications Troubleshooting 327 Chapter 12 IPv6 Troubleshooting 373 Chapter 13 Advanced Services Troubleshooting 419 Chapter 14 Large Enterprise Network Troubleshooting 445 Chapter 15 Final Preparation 473 Appendix A Answers to the Do I Know This Already? Quizzes 479 Glossary 483 Index 497 CD-Only Appendixes Appendix B Appendix C Memory Tables Memory Tables Answer Key vii Contents Foreword xvii Introduction xviii Chapter 1 Introduction to Network Maintenance 3 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 3 Foundation Topics 7 Understanding Maintenance Methods 7 Introducing Network Maintenance 7 Proactive Versus Reactive Network Maintenance 7 Well-Known Network Maintenance Models 8 Adapting a Well-Known Network Maintenance Model 8 Identifying Common Maintenance Procedures 9 Routine Maintenance Tasks 10 Benefits of Scheduled Maintenance 10 Managing Network Changes 11 Maintaining Network Documentation 12 Restoring Operation After Failure 13 Measuring Network Performance 14 The Network Maintenance Toolkit 14 Basic Network Maintenance Tools 14 Network Documentation Tools 21 Incident Recovery Tools 22 Monitoring and Measuring Tools 22 Exam Preparation Tasks 23 Review All the Key Topics 23 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 23 Definition of Key Terms 23 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 24 Chapter 2 Introduction to Troubleshooting Processes 27 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 27 Foundation Topics 31 Troubleshooting Methods 31 Defining Troubleshooting 31 The Value of a Structured Troubleshooting Approach 33 Popular Troubleshooting Methods 34 The Top-Down Method 34 viii CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Practice Exercise: Selecting a Troubleshooting Approach 38 Using Troubleshooting Procedures 39 Problem Report 40 Collect Information 40 Examine Collected Information 40 Eliminate Potential Causes 41 Hypothesize Underlying Cause 42 Verify Hypothesis 42 Problem Resolution 43 Including Troubleshooting in Routine Network Maintenance 43 The Relationship Between Maintenance and Troubleshooting Tasks 43 Maintaining Current Network Documentation 44 Establishing a Baseline 45 Communicating Throughout the Troubleshooting Process 45 Change Management 46 Exam Preparation Tasks 48 Review All the Key Topics 48 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 48 Definition of Key Terms 48 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 48 Chapter 3 The Maintenance and Troubleshooting Toolbox 51 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 51 Foundation Topics 53 Cisco IOS Diagnostic Tools 53 Filtering the Output of show Commands 53 Troubleshooting Connectivity 58 Troubleshooting Hardware 60 Specialized Diagnostic Tools 61 Using Specialized Tools in the Troubleshooting Process 62 Performing Packet Captures 62 Creating a Baseline with SNMP and NetFlow 66 SNMP 67 NetFlow 67 Providing Notifications for Network Events 70 Exam Preparation Tasks 73 Review All the Key Topics 73 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 74 ix Define Key Terms 74 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 74 Chapter 4 Basic Cisco Catalyst Switch Troubleshooting 79 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 79 Foundation Topics 81 VLAN Troubleshooting 81 Reviewing Layer 2 Switching 81 Layer 2 Troubleshooting Techniques 88 Spanning Tree Protocol Troubleshooting 90 Reviewing STP Operation 91 Collecting Information About an STP Topology 93 STP Troubleshooting Issues 94 Troubleshooting EtherChannel 96 Trouble Ticket: STP 97 Trouble Ticket #1 97 Suggested Solution 101 Exam Preparation Tasks 103 Review All the Key Topics 103 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 103 Define Key Terms 103 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 104 Chapter 5 Advanced Cisco Catalyst Switch Troubleshooting 107 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 107 Foundation Topics 110 Resolving InterVLAN Routing Issues 110 Contrasting Layer 3 Switches with Routers 110 Control Plane and Data Plane Troubleshooting 111 Comparing Routed Switch Ports and Switched Virtual Interfaces 113 Router Redundancy Troubleshooting 115 HSRP 116 Converging After a Router Failure 117 HSRP Verification and Troubleshooting 117 VRRP 120 GLBP 121 Troubleshooting VRRP and GLBP 121 x CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Cisco Catalyst Switch Performance Troubleshooting 122 Cisco Catalyst Switch Troubleshooting Targets 122 TCAM Troubleshooting 127 High CPU Utilization Level Troubleshooting 129 Trouble Ticket: HSRP 130 Trouble Ticket #2 130 Suggested Solution 134 Exam Preparation Tasks 135 Review All Key Topics 135 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 135 Define Key Terms 136 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 136 Chapter 6 Introduction to Troubleshooting Routing Protocols 139 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 139 Foundation Topics 141 Layer 3 Troubleshooting 141 Basic Routing Processes 141 Troubleshooting Basic Routing 144 EIGRP Troubleshooting 149 Data Structures of IP Routing Protocols 150 Data Structures of EIGRP 152 EIGRP Operation 152 EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands 154 Trouble Ticket: EIGRP 158 Trouble Ticket #3 158 Suggested Solution 161 Exam Preparation Tasks 163 Review All Key Topics 163 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 163 Define Key Terms 163 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 163 Chapter 7 OSPF and Route Redistribution Troubleshooting 167 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 167 Foundation Topics 170 OSPF Troubleshooting 170 OSPF Data Structures 170 OSPF Operation 171 OSPF Troubleshooting Commands 178 xi Trouble Ticket: OSPF 186 Trouble Ticket #4 186 Route Redistribution Troubleshooting 204 Route Redistribution Overview 205 Route Redistribution Troubleshooting Targets 206 Trouble Ticket: Route Redistribution with EIGRP and OSPF 209 Trouble Ticket #5 210 Suggested Solution 217 Exam Preparation Tasks 221 Review All the Key Topics 221 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 221 Define Key Terms 222 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 222 Chapter 8 Troubleshooting BGP and Router Performance Issues 225 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 225 Foundation Topics 227 BGP Troubleshooting Issues 227 BGP Data Structures 227 BGP Troubleshooting Commands 230 Trouble Ticket: BGP 236 Trouble Ticket #6 236 Suggested Solution 242 Router Performance Issues 245 Excessive CPU Utilization 245 Processes That Commonly Cause Excessive CPU Utilization 246 Cisco IOS Commands Used for Troubleshooting High Processor Utilization 246 Understanding Packet Switching Modes 251 Operation of Process Switching 251 Operation of Fast Switching 252 Operation of Cisco Express Forwarding 252 Troubleshooting Packet Switching Modes 254 Excessive Memory Utilization 258 Common Memory Troubleshooting Targets 258 Excessive BGP Memory Use 261 Exam Preparation Tasks 262 Review All the Key Topics 262 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 262 xii CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Define Key Terms 263 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 263 Chapter 9 Security Troubleshooting 267 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 267 Foundation Topics 270 Introduction to Cisco IOS Security 270 Securing the Management Plane 270 Securing the Control Plane 272 Securing the Data Plane 277 Troubleshooting Network Security Issues 280 Security Troubleshooting Targets 281 Configuring and Troubleshooting the Cisco IOS Firewall Feature 281 Configuring and Troubleshooting AAA 285 Trouble Ticket: Cisco IOS Security 288 Trouble Ticket #7 289 Issue #1: Forgotten Enable Secret Password 291 Issue #2: An exec-timeout Parameter Set Too Low 292 Issue #3: ACL Misconfiguration 293 Exam Preparation Tasks 295 Review All Key Topics 295 Complete the Tables and Lists from Memory 295 Define Key Terms 295 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 296 Chapter 10 IP Services Troubleshooting 299 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 299 Foundation Topics 302 NAT Troubleshooting 302 Types of NAT 302 Sample NAT Topology 302 Potential NAT Troubleshooting Issues 304 Order of Operations for an Interface 305 NAT Troubleshooting Syntax 306 DHCP Troubleshooting 309 Basic DHCP Operation 309 DHCP Configurations 310 Potential DHCP Troubleshooting Issues 313 xiii DHCP Troubleshooting Syntax 314 Trouble Ticket: NAT 317 Trouble Ticket #8 317 Exam Preparation Tasks 322 Review All the Key Topics 322 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 322 Define Key Terms 323 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 323 Chapter 11 IP Communications Troubleshooting 327 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 327 Foundation Topics 330 Voice Troubleshooting 330 Overview of IP Telephony 330 Design Considerations for Voice Networks 331 Cisco IP Phone Boot-Up Process 334 Common Voice Troubleshooting Issues 335 Overview of Quality of Service 336 Video Troubleshooting 346 Introduction to IP-Based Video 347 Design Considerations for Video 348 Multicasting 349 Common Video Troubleshooting Issues 357 Trouble Tickets: Unified Communications 359 Trouble Ticket #9 359 Trouble Ticket # Exam Preparation Tasks 369 Review All Key Topics 369 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 369 Define Key Terms 369 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 370 Chapter 12 IPv6 Troubleshooting 373 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 373 Foundation Topics 376 Reviewing IPv6 376 IPv6 Address Types 376 IPv6 Address Format 378 IPv6 Routing Options 379 xiv CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Configuring IPv6 Support 379 Tunneling IPv6 Through an IPv4 Tunnel 380 OSPFv3 Troubleshooting 382 Characteristics of OSPFv3 382 Configuring OSPFv3 382 Troubleshooting OSPFv3 384 Trouble Ticket: IPv6 and OSPF 385 Trouble Ticket # Viewing Baseline Information 386 Troubleshoot and Resolve the Identified OSPFv3 Adjacency Issue 391 RIPng Troubleshooting 399 Review RIPng Theory 399 RIPng Configuration Commands 399 Troubleshooting RIPng 401 Trouble Ticket: IPv6 and RIPng 402 Trouble Ticket # Viewing Baseline Information 402 Troubleshoot and Resolve the Identified RIPng Issue 408 Exam Preparation Tasks 414 Review All Key Topics 414 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 415 Define Key Terms 415 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 415 Chapter 13 Advanced Services Troubleshooting 419 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 420 Foundation Topics 422 Application Network Services Troubleshooting 422 Application Optimization 423 NetFlow 424 IP SLAs 426 Network-Based Application Recognition 429 QoS 431 Wireless Troubleshooting Targets 434 Introducing the Cisco Unified Wireless Network 435 Wired Network Issues Impacting Wireless Networks 437 Exam Preparation Tasks 440 Review All the Key Topics 440 xv Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 441 Define Key Terms 441 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 441 Chapter 14 Large Enterprise Network Troubleshooting 445 Do I Know This Already? Quiz 445 Foundation Topics 448 Remote Office Troubleshooting 448 VPN Types 449 Troubleshooting VPN Issues 454 Complex Network Troubleshooting 463 Troubleshooting Complex Networks 463 Case Study Review 464 Exam Preparation Tasks 470 Review All the Key Topics 470 Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 470 Define Key Terms 470 Command Reference to Check Your Memory 470 Chapter 15 Final Preparation 473 Tools for Final Preparation 473 Information About the TSHOOT Exam 473 Exam Engine and Questions on the CD 473 Install the Software from the CD 474 Activate and Download the Practice Exam 474 Activating Other Exams 475 The Cisco CCNP Prep Center 475 Study Plan 476 Recall the Facts 476 Use the Exam Engine 476 Choosing Study or Simulation Mode 476 Passing Scores for the TSHOOT Exam 477 Appendix A Answers to the Do I Know This Already? Quizzes 479 Glossary 483 Index 497 CD-Only Appendixes Appendix B Appendix C Memory Tables Memory Tables Answer Key xvi CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide Icons Used in This Book PBX Switch V Voice-Enabled Router/Gateway V Voice-Enabled Switch Cisco UCME Router Access Point Lightweight Access Point Hub WLAN Controller Router Switch Multilayer Switch Cisco IOS Firewall Authentication Server Cisco WAE, WAAS, ACNS H.323 Video Conferencing System Cisco TelePresence System TelePresence MCU Cisco Unified Communications Manager Server Cisco AVS Cisco GSS, CSM, ACE Laptop Server PC IP Phone Camera PC/Video Analog Phone Ethernet Connection Serial Line Connection Network Cloud Wireless Connection Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax), boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. Vertical bars ( ) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements. Square brackets ([ ]) indicate an optional element. Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice. Braces within brackets ([{ }]) indicate a required choice within an optional element. xvii Foreword CCNP TSHOOT Official Certification Guide is an excellent self-study resource for the CCNP TSHOOT exam. Passing this exam is a crucial step to attaining the valued CCNP Routing and Switching certification. Gaining certification in Cisco technology is key to the continuing educational development of today s networking professional. Through cert
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