Attitudes Towards Technologies for Increasing Seat Belt Use

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Attitudes Towards Technologies for Increasing Seat Belt Use Lifesavers Conference Denver, CO April 15, 2013 David G. Kidd MAP-21 opens up new opportunities to use in-vehicle technology to increase belt
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Attitudes Towards Technologies for Increasing Seat Belt Use Lifesavers Conference Denver, CO April 15, 2013 David G. Kidd MAP-21 opens up new opportunities to use in-vehicle technology to increase belt use Can allow automakers to use interlocks to comply with a safety regulation Can require reminder chime for more than 8 seconds Rulemaking for rear seat belt reminders MAP-21 opens up new opportunities to use in-vehicle technology to increase belt use Can allow automakers to use interlocks to comply with a safety regulation Can require reminder chime for more than 8 seconds Rulemaking for rear seat belt reminders Percent belt use observed in model vehicles with belt reminders or interlocks Robertson, no system basic reminder ignition interlock Belt interlocks are unpopular Focus groups of part-time belt users Too invasive Concerns about emergency situations Believe belt use is a personal choice 2003 telephone survey of part-time users indicated radio/ entertainment interlock was most effective and least acceptable Situations to consider: Warming up the car Emergency situations Moving at low speeds in parking lot or driveway Only effective if people what to use that particular function Can we take advantage of MAP-21 changes? IIHS Survey, 2012 National survey of 1,218 drivers and passengers on self-reported belt use Respondents classified as full-time, part-time or nonusers Part-time and nonusers asked Reasons for not buckling up Opinions about effectiveness and acceptance of technologies Types of belt users Drivers and adult passengers 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% full-time users part-time users nonusers Top 3 reasons for not using seat belt By belt user type part-time users nonusers short trip 67% forget 60% comfort 47% comfort 77% don t need belt 54% don t like being told what to do 50% Part-time users opinions about belt use interlocks and reminders Percent that agree prevents vehicle from starting limits speed to 15 mph basic safety belt reminder accelerator pedal resistance more likely to buckle up acceptable prevents use of entertainment and communication systems 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percent of belt users that would support different belt interlocks By belt use group prevents vehicle from starting prevents vehicle from being put in gear limits speed to 15 mph full-time users prevents use of entertainment and communication systems part-time users nonusers Interlocks and buckling routines Percentage who have buckled up at each step during trip start full-time users part-time users ignition interlock gearshift interlock entertainment interlock speed limiter pedal resistance 0 before car starts after car starts, before placing in gear after placing in gear, before car moving after car moving it varies MAP-21 opens up new opportunities to use in-vehicle technology to increase belt use Can allow automakers to use interlocks to comply with a safety regulation Can require reminder chime for more than 8 seconds Rulemaking for rear seat belt reminders Percent belt use observed in model vehicles with belt reminders or interlocks Robertson, no system basic reminder ignition interlock Percent driver belt use in vehicles with and without enhanced reminders with without Ford dealers 2002 Honda dealers 2007 observed traffic NHTSA, 2007 Enhanced seat belt reminders are common in U.S. fleet Many manufacturers voluntarily fit 2012 models with enhanced reminders 91 percent driver 77 percent front passenger Euro NCAP gives credit to driver and front passenger reminders that meet certain criteria Loud and clear audiovisual signal lasting at least 90 seconds Intermittent or continuous signal Criteria for when the signal must start Real-world belt-reminder effectiveness U.S. driver belt use 3-6 percentage points higher in vehicles with enhanced reminders vs. vehicles without enhanced reminders Driver belt use in Europe 93-99% when fitted with enhanced belt reminders meeting EuroNCAP rating criteria 12 percentage points higher than in cars without reminders U.S. driver fatality risk 2 percent lower for vehicles with enhanced reminders vs. vehicles without enhanced reminders Part-time users opinions about effectiveness and acceptability of different reminder features Percent who agree buzzer or chime physical cue like vibration voice message lit or flashing warning light text display more likely to buckle up acceptable illuminated seat belt buckle 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Part-time users opinions about effectiveness and acceptability of different intensities of reminders Percent who agree more intense over time repeats every 15 seconds repeats every 60 seconds more intense as car speeds up ends after few seconds more likely to buckle up acceptable 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Increasing benefit of front passenger belt reminders Reminders meeting Euro NCAP s design requirements increase driver and front passenger belt use System designs can vary widely Intermittent or continuous 90-second audiovisual signal Allow for gaps in signal up to 25 seconds Proportion of time chime sound can vary Overall duration of chime can vary What features of enhanced belt reminders are most effective? Sample reminder Ratings of effectiveness and annoyance by belt reminder type % 50% 100% likelihood of buckling up annoyance basic enhanced 20% - 6 sec on, 24 sec off 50% - 15 sec on, 15 sec off 100% - 30 sec on, 0 sec off MAP-21 opens up new opportunities to use in-vehicle technology to increase belt use Can allow automakers to use interlocks to comply with a safety regulation Can require reminder chime for more than 8 seconds Rulemaking for rear seat belt reminders Encouraging fitment of rear reminders Euro NCAP gives credit for rear reminders Visual display lasting at least 30 seconds after start of trip Audible tone when a rear belt is unbuckled 2007 petition to NHTSA to mandate rear reminders 3 percent of 2012 U.S. vehicle models have rear seat belt reminder systems IIHS 2012 national survey of 254 drivers with 8-15 year-olds riding in back seat Only 3 percent said their child does not always buckle up in back seat Reasons why child does not buckle up 84 percent do not like belt 77 percent never fasten belt 55 percent take belt off during trip Reminder features parents want 82 percent of parents want to know when child is unbuckled Desired reminder information Diagram of seating positions and belt use (87%) Flashing or illuminated light or text display (85%) Chime or buzzer (79%) Desired reminder duration Until children buckle up (63%) Several miles into trip (17%) Brief, ending shortly after vehicle starts (19%) Conclusions MAP-21 offers new opportunities to increase front and rear occupant belt use Survey suggests belt reminders would be most acceptable technology to encourage belt use and are reasonably effective Audible reminders and reminders that are persistent are most effective Strengthening reminder requirements similar to Euro NCAP is a promising way to increase belt use Estimate about one-third of the enhanced seat belt reminders in the U.S. currently meet Euro NCAP requirements Reducing duty cycle is one way to reduce annoyance of European-style enhanced reminders Most parents want rear seat reminders with information on belt use status Dedicated to reducing deaths, injuries, and property damage on the highway
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