ARMAMENTS YEAR-BOOK LEAGUE OF NATIONS. General and Statistical Information. Ninth Year. Official No.: C M J3. IX.

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Ninth Year. Official No.: C M J3. IX. [Communicated to the Council and to the Members of the League.] GENEVA, May LEAGUE OF NATIONS ARMAMENTS YEAR-BOOK General and Statistical Information
Ninth Year. Official No.: C M J3. IX. [Communicated to the Council and to the Members of the League.] GENEVA, May LEAGUE OF NATIONS ARMAMENTS YEAR-BOOK General and Statistical Information Afghanistan - Albania - Saudi Arabia - Argentine - Australia - Austria - Belgium - Bolivia - Brazil - Bulgaria - Canada Chile - China - Colombia - Costa Rica - Cuba - Czechoslovakia - Denmark - Dominican Republic - Ecuador - Egypt - Estonia - Finland - France - Germany - Greece - Guatemala - Haiti - Honduras - Hungary - India - - Iraq - Irish Free State - Italy - Japan - Latvia - Liberia - Lithuania - Luxemburg - Mexico - Netherlands - New Zealand - Nicaragua - Norway -- Panama - Paraguay - Persia -.Peru Poland - Portugal Roumania - Salvador - Siam - Spain Sweden - Switzerland - Turkey - Union of South Africa - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (including British Colonies and Protectorates and 'Newfoundland) United States of America - Uruguay - Venezuela - Yugoslavia (Kingdom of). Series of League of Nations Publications IX. DISARMAMENT IX. 5. The Armaments Year-Book is published in pursuance of the decision taken by the Council of the League of Nations in July I923 and in conformity with the principles laid down by the Council and the Assembly of the League of Nations.' The-present edition contains monographs on sixty-four countries, both Members and non-members of the League. In the case of countries possessing colonies and colonial forces, the monographs also give detailed information on the organisation and composition of such forces. This edition has been altered so as to take into account all important changes introduced in military legislation and, in general, in the composition and organisation of the armed forces of the different countries. All the monographs have been revised and, as far as possible, brought up to date and completed in the light of the most recent official publications. Thus it has been possible this year to insert more detailed monographs where the former editions gave only summarised information. It has been possible in most cases, with the aid of official publications appearing at frequent intervals, to follow the changes which have taken place in -the military organisations of the different countries up to May I933. In particular, as regards budgetary effectives and expenditure on national defence., we have been able to give figures for I932 for nearly all countries and in a number of cases for i933 (or I932-33). Owing to the difference in military systems and the transitional state of the law armaments on in certain countries it has not been possible to follow a uniform plan in all the monographs. The information given is more or less detailed according as the military systems described are more or less complicated and as the documents at the disposal of the Secretariat are moreofor less numerous. There is a close cnonnetion between the different chapters alsmonograph. of To each form a correct idea of any particular aspend composition military a given country, organisation of it therefore necessary to read the whole monograph, or at any ratethose chaptes farwhich supplement one another. For example, a perusal of the chapter concerning brougilitay effectives is not always to sufficient correct give a of idea the situ ation; in cases some it must be supplemented by readin the For details, see the introduction to the first of the edition Year-Book. S. D. N. 1.45o (F) 225 (A) 5/33. Imp. Riunies, Chambs regards budgetary. effectives and S. D. N (F) (A) 5/33. Imp. Reunies, Chambery. 4 PREFACE The information on which the present publication is based, is derived from two sources i. In the first place, use has been made of the communications from the Governments to the Secretariat on the occasion of the Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments. In the large majority of cases, these communications contain information as to the effectives of armed forces, the organisation of police forces, air material, naval material and national defence expenditure. As this information refers for the most part to the year I931-32, more recent particulars taken from the official publications received by the Secretariat in the meantime have been added. In particular, as regards the effectives of armed forces, the reader's attention is called to 'the fact that it is impossible to compare the figures for effectives published on the basis of the information contained in the various communications from the Governments to the Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments and those appearing in other official publications of the same Governments. The latter are generally budgetary or establishment effectives, whereas the former are the average daily effectives calculated on a system established in 'the draft Convention of the Preparatory Disarmament Commission. The same observation applies to the chapters on national defence expenditure. The information consists of two tables followed by explanatory notes for those countries -the Goverr ments of which have sent replies to the Secretariat, and of a single table for other countries. One of the tables based on the communications from Governments and relating to only one year, and the other containing a recapitulation of expenditure for the last five or six years. As the figures in these two tables are based on different systems of calculation, they cannot be compared. The Governments' replies are more or less drafted with reference to the instructions and recommendations contained in the report by the Committee of Experts on Budgetary Questions of the Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Conference (gross figures, inclusion of extrabudgetary expenditure, special funds, local expenditure, expenditure on formations organised on a military basis, etc.). The recapitulatory tables prepared by the Secretariat are drawn up in accordance with the methods explained in the introduction to the previous editions of the Year-Book-i.e., as a rule, no attempt has been made to recast the defence budgets according to a. standard system in order to make them comparable . 2. The second source of information used for the preparation of the various military monographs of the Year-Book is confined, to the official publications of the different countries, such as collections of laws, official journals, official military bulletins, military year-books, the various statistical publications, etc. All the chapters of the Year-Book containing information on the principal characteristics of the armed forces of the different countries, the organs of military command and administration, territorial military areas, the organi- PREFACE sation and composition of land armies, air forces and navies, systems of recruiting and periods of service, military training, etc., are based on the above-mentioned publications. The reader will find at the end of the volume a bibliography for every country which appears in the Year-Book, indicating all the documents consulted in the preparation of the present publication. The Armaments Year-Book contains two annexes. Annex I relates to the Conventions, Treaties and Agreements concluded between different countries from 1817 to I931, which are at present in force and relate to questions generally affecting the reduction and limitation of the armaments of the contracting countries. Annex II contains a number of recapitulatory statistical tables and graphs showing world military expenditure, the essential characteristics of the army of each country, the navies of a number of countries, etc. Each monograph is divided into three or four parts-namely I, Land Army; II, Air Force; III, Navy; IV, Expenditure on National Defence. In cases where the air force is not organised as an autonomous arm, it is included in the chapter dealing with the army. I. ARMY. In preparing this part, the Secretariat has taken into consideration the following points : Main characteristics of the armed forces; Organs of military command and administration; Territorial military areas; Organisation and composition of the army (higher units, arms and services); Police forces; System of recruiting and period of service; Cadres (recruiting, promotion), schools; Preparatory military training; Army effectives. II. AIR FORCE. For the air force, in cases where it is organised as an independent arm, the same arrangement as far the army has been followed as far as possible. III. NAVY. This chapter contains information on various warships by categories (battleships and battle-cruisers, coast-defence ships, aircraftcarriers, cruisers, destroyers and torpedo-boats, submarines), together with information concerning the most important characteristics of 6 PREFACE each vessel or of each class of vessel (dimension, tonnage,' motive power, armaments, etc.). For some countries, a summary is also given of the organisation of the central administration of the navy, and, where possible, the effectives of the naval forces have been indicated. IV. See page 4. EXPENDITURE ON NATIONAL-DEFENCE. * PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS AND RAW MATERIALS AFFECTING NATIONAL DEFENCE. In order to avoid all duplication, and as a measure of economy, it has been decided to discontinue publishing in the Armaments Year- Book the information on the raw materials and other products affecting national defence. The Secretariat publishes every yea; very detailed information on the production of and trade in a large number of raw materials and other products. The reader will find in particular in the Statistical Year-Book of the League of Nations (Year I932-33) the -following statistical information: Fuel: Coal, Lignite, Petroleum. Ores and Metals: 1. Ores: Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin. 1 The tonnage is given in most cases in the form of standard displacement; in some cases it is given as normal displacement : Standard Displacement.-According to the definition given in the Washington Naval Treaties (Chapter II, Part IV), standard displacement is the displacement of the ship complete, fully manned, engined and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and ammunition, equipment, outfit, provisions and fresh water for crew, miscellaneous stores and implements of every description that are intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve feed water on board Normal Displacement (Cases of Normal Armament).--The normal displacement is the standard displacement plus part only of the weight of the fuel and the whole (in the case of large ships) or part only (in that of small ships) of the weight of the reserve fuel water on board. PREFACE 7 II. Metals: Pig-iron and ferro-alloys, Steel, 'Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin, Aluminium, Nickel. Chemical Products: NWatural phosphates, I Sulphate of ammonia, Nitrate of soda, Cyanamide of calcium, Sulphur, Salt. Agricultural Products: Live-stock. Various Products: I. Cereals: Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Maize, Rice. II. Cotton, Flax, Wool, Rubber. Potatoes. For the international trade in these products, the reader is referred to the Secretariat's publication entitled International Trade Statistics, 1930 (published in I932).
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