American Sign Language Level I, II, III, & IV Curriculum Essentials Document

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American Sign Language Level I, II, III, & IV Curriculum Essentials Document Boulder Valley School District Department of Curriculum and Instruction April /29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 1 Overview
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American Sign Language Level I, II, III, & IV Curriculum Essentials Document Boulder Valley School District Department of Curriculum and Instruction April /29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 1 Overview of Changes World Languages Standards Principles of the Standards Review Process The Colorado Model Content Standards revision process was informed by these guiding principles: Begin with the end in mind; define what prepared graduates need to be successful using 21 st century skills in our global economy. Align K-12 standards with early childhood expectations and higher education. Change is necessary. Standards will be deliberately designed for clarity, rigor, and coherence. There will be fewer, higher, and clearer standards. Standards will be actionable. Notable Changes to the Colorado Model Content Standards in World Languages The most evident change to the Colorado standards is replacing grade-band standards (K-4, 5-8, and 9-12) with range level expectations. These are explained here in addition to other changes that are apparent upon comparison between the current world languages standards and the proposed changes. 1. World languages versus foreign language. The current Colorado Model Content Standards in foreign language have been revised and renamed World Languages. The World Languages Subcommittee explains that world languages is a term that connotes an international, focus encouraging students to become competitive citizens of the world. 2. Impact of standards articulation by grade range. The original Colorado Model Content Standards for world languages were designed to provide districts with benchmarks of learning for grades 4, 8, and 12. The standards revision subcommittee was charged with providing more of a specific learning trajectory of concepts and skills across range levels, from early school readiness to postsecondary preparedness. Articulating standards by range level from novice-low to intermediate-mid in each area affords greater specificity (clearer standards) in describing the learning path across levels (higher standards), while focusing on a few key ideas at each grade level (fewer standards). 3. Standards are written for mastery. The proposed revisions to standards define mastery of concepts and skills. Mastery means that a student has facility with a skill or concept in multiple contexts. This is not an indication that instruction on a grade level expectation begins and only occurs at that grade level. Maintenance of previously mastered concepts and skills and scaffolding for future learning are the domains of curriculum and instruction, not standards. 4. Intentional integration of technology use. The proposed revisions to standards encourage using appropriate technology to allow students access to concepts and skills in ways that mirror the 21 st century workplace. 5. Intentional opportunities for integration. The subcommittees in world languages worked within content area and also within multi-content area grade level groups. The purpose was to create a viable document for P-12 to provide a long-range, sequential program. In addition, the subcommittees were focused on the consolidation of standards. 3/29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 2 Below is a quick guide to other changes in the world languages standards: Area Number of standards Names of standards Summary of Changes Previous Standards Revised Standards Two standards with Standard 1 Four new standards having four sub-standards Standard 1: Students Standard 1: communicate in a foreign language Communication in Languages Other while demonstrating literacy in all Than English four essential skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Standard 2: Substandard 1.1: LISTENING Knowledge and Understanding of Students listen to and derive Other Cultures meaning from a variety of foreign language sources. Standard 3: Substandard 1.2: SPEAKING Connections with Other Disciplines Students speak in the foreign and Information Acquisition language for a variety of purposes and for diverse audiences. Standard 4: Substandard 1.3: READING Comparisons to Develop Insight into Students read and derive meaning the Nature of Language and Culture from a variety of materials written in a foreign language. Substandard 1.4: WRITING Students write in a foreign language for a variety of purposes and for diverse audiences. Standard 2: Students acquire and use knowledge of cultures while developing foreign language skills. Integration of 21 st century and postsecondary workforce readiness skills Not deliberately addressed in original document P-2 Standards articulated with K-4 benchmarks (Beginning) 5-8 benchmarks (Intermediate) 9-12 benchmarks (Advanced) (Because there are multiple entry and exit points in foreign language classes, a student in a beginning class would start with beginning benchmarks and not grade levels.) Number of grade level expectations Average of three benchmarks per benchmark skill span 21 st century skills and postsecondary workforce readiness skills have been embedded throughout the evidence outcomes of P-12 and in the prepared graduate expectations. This document uses the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages proficiency guidelines, which define proficiency levels for different ranges. The ranges go from novice-low to intermediate-mid, which are needed by all to be successful in the 21 st century global economy. Average of three expectations per expectation per range level 3/29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 3 Use of the Target Language in the Classroom (American council of Teachers of Foreign Languages ACTFL) Research indicates that effective language instruction must provide significant levels of meaningful communication* and interactive feedback in the target language in order for students to develop language and cultural proficiency. The pivotal role of target-language interaction in language learning is emphasized in the K-16 Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century. ACTFL therefore recommends that language educators and their students use the target language as exclusively as possible (90% plus) at all levels of instruction during instructional time and, when feasible, beyond the classroom. In classrooms that feature maximum target-language use, instructors use a variety of strategies to facilitate comprehension and support meaning making. For example, they: 1. provide comprehensible input that is directed toward communicative goals; 2. make meaning clear through body language, gestures, and visual support; 3. conduct comprehension checks to ensure understanding; 4. negotiate meaning with students and encourage negotiation among students; 5. elicit talk that increases in fluency, accuracy, and complexity over time; 6. encourage self-expression and spontaneous use of language; 7. teach students strategies for requesting clarification and assistance when faced with comprehension difficulties; and 8. offer feedback to assist and improve students ability to interact orally in the target language. *Communication for a classical language refers to an emphasis on reading ability and for American Sign Language (ASL) to signed communicative ability. 3/29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 4 Novice-Low/Intermediate-Mid Proficiency Range Levels The study of a second language is affected by complex factors and variables that influence both the amount of time it takes to learn the language and a student s progress through the graduated levels of proficiency. The amount of time required to learn another language and culture is linked to the linguistic and cultural differences among the languages and cultures in question. The specific language and culture that learners study and their performance profile at entry will affect the amount of time required to achieve a particular level of proficiency. Students who begin second language study early in elementary grades and continue an uninterrupted sequence of study will advance further than a student who begins in high school. Performance expectations at particular ranges may be attained over different periods of time, dependent upon such factors as age of the learner, the first and target languages, scheduling patterns of the language program, and the scope and sequence of the language program. Proficiency is not acquired in all languages at the same pace. The Foreign Service Institute has classified various languages into four groups according to length of time that its takes highly motivated adult learners who are native speakers of English to develop proficiency. Romance languages such as Spanish, French, and Italian fall into Group I, and languages that are character-based or whose structures are quite different from English, such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Arabic, fall into Group IV. Students learning these languages will require more time to meet the same reading and writing goals, and they will also face a greater challenge as they become culturally competent in the societies where these languages are spoken. Secondary learners usually require more than one year to progress from the novice-low to novice-mid range and may spend a significant amount of time within two adjacent ranges of novice-high and intermediate-low. It is important to re-emphasize that a student s level of language proficiency is dependent on both the length of instruction and the quality of instruction, that is, time spent in meaningful communication on topics that are relevant to a student s cognitive and interest levels. The study of classical languages continues to be a viable foreign language option for today s student. Not only do the classics give access to the world of the Romans, Greeks, and other ancient civilizations, but they also promote an awareness of Western civilization s rich and diverse heritage from the classical world, improve students ability to communicate in English, and facilitate the learning of other languages. Teachers of the classical languages will need to apply the standards differently. For example, Latin is taught primarily as a literary rather than a spoken language, so there will be more emphasis on standards relating to the development of the ability to read authentic texts and less emphasis on using the language for oral communication. Children who come to school from non-english speaking backgrounds, known as heritage language learners, should also have educational opportunities to maintain and further develop their first language. These students come to school with varying literacy skills in their first language, and traditional foreign language classes may not meet their needs. Schools should consider the skills, knowledge, and culture of heritage speakers and give them adequate opportunities to academically develop their heritage language. This approach may include providing individual and/or group instructional opportunities that are both developmentally appropriate and rigorous. The progression of world language learners through the Colorado World Languages Standards is based on an uninterrupted sequence of language and culture study. With varying entry and exit points, teachers will need to modify the content and related language activities in their specific program depending upon the student s age and when he/she begins the study of a particular language. For example, the novice range applies to all students beginning to learn a second language, which may occur at any age. The novice range may encompass a four- to five-year sequence that begins in elementary or middle school, or a three-year high school program, depending upon the factors listed above. Likewise, the intermediate range occurs over a period of time and a variety of experiences. For example, for Colorado world language learners to reach the prepared graduate competency at the intermediate-mid range in a Group I Romance language, they mostly likely will need a minimum of a sixth- through twelfth-grade program of uninterrupted sequential language learning with sufficient amounts of meaningful interaction with the language and its cultures. Curriculum design and development should address these variables. 3/29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 5 Colorado Academic Standards World Languages Standards for world languages learning: Preparing for the 21st century Knowing how, when, and why to say what to whom. In the 21 st century society, the study of more than one language is not only absolutely essential to the core curriculum, but also imperative to the economic growth and continued prosperity of the United States. Language and communication are essential to the human experience. Knowing how, when, and why to say what to whom are the words that encompass all the linguistic and social knowledge required for effective human-to-human interaction. Students must be linguistically and culturally equipped to communicate successfully in our multilingual, multicultural world. It is vital for students to develop and maintain proficiency in English and in at least one other language. Students from non-english speaking backgrounds must also have opportunities to develop proficiency in their first language. Supporting this vision are four assumptions about language and culture, learners of language and culture, and language and culture education: Competence in more than one language and culture enables people to: Communicate with other people in other cultures in a variety of settings Look beyond their customary borders Develop insight into their own language and culture Act with greater awareness of self, of other cultures, and their own relationship to those cultures Gain direct access to additional bodies of knowledge Participate more fully in the global community and workforce All students can be successful language and culture learners, and they: Must have access to language and culture study that is integrated into the entire school experience Benefit from the development and maintenance of proficiency in more than one language Learn in a variety of ways and settings Acquire proficiency at varied rates Language and culture education is part of the core curriculum, and it: Is tied to program models that incorporate effective strategies, assessment procedures, and technologies Reflects evolving standards at the national, state, and local levels Develops and enhances basic communication skills and higher order thinking skills All students will apply the language skills learned: Within the school setting At home, in the community, and abroad To interpret global events from multicultural perspectives To expand cross-cultural and intercultural understanding For increased career opportunities To become lifelong learners for personal enjoyment and enrichment The Colorado Academic Standards for World Languages are based on these four assumptions. For these assumptions to be successful, the target language must be used most of the time. Acquisition of language occurs when students understand messages through listening, reading, and viewing. Students demonstrate acquisition through speaking and writing. The best environment for second language acquisition is one in which teachers use the target language instead of teaching about the target language. This environment sets the scene for students to better produce and use the language that will help them later to be prepared as multilingual global citizens. 3/29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 6 Standards Organization and Construction As the subcommittee began the revision process to improve the existing standards, it became evident that the way the standards information was organized, defined, and constructed needed to change from the existing documents. The new design is intended to provide more clarity and direction for teachers, and to show how 21 st century skills and the elements of school readiness and postsecondary and workforce readiness indicators give depth and context to essential learning. The Continuum of State Standards Definitions section that follows shows the hierarchical order of the standards components. The Standards Template section demonstrates how this continuum is put into practice. The elements of the revised standards are: Prepared Graduate Competencies: The preschool through twelfth-grade concepts and skills that all students who complete the Colorado education system must master to ensure their success in a postsecondary and workforce setting. Standard: The topical organization of an academic content area. High School Expectations: The articulation of the concepts and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a prepared graduate. What do students need to know in high school? Grade Level Expectations: The articulation (at each grade level), concepts, and skills of a standard that indicate a student is making progress toward being ready for high school. What do students need to know from preschool through eighth grade? Evidence Outcomes: The indication that a student is meeting an expectation at the mastery level. How do we know that a student can do it? 21 st Century Skills and Readiness Competencies: Includes the following: Inquiry Questions: Sample questions are intended to promote deeper thinking, reflection and refined understandings precisely related to the grade level expectation. Relevance and Application: Examples of how the grade level expectation is applied at home, on the job or in a realworld, relevant context. Nature of the Discipline: The characteristics and viewpoint one keeps as a result of mastering the grade level expectation. 3/29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 7 Continuum of State Standards Definitions Prepared Graduate Competency Prepared Graduate Competencies are the P- 12 concepts and skills that all students leaving the Colorado education system must have to ensure success in a postsecondary and workforce setting. Standards Standards are the topical organization of an academic content area. P-8 High School Grade Level Expectations Expectations articulate, at each grade level, the knowledge and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward high school. What do students need to know? High School Expectations Expectations articulate the knowledge and skills of a standard that indicates a student is making progress toward being a prepared graduate. What do students need to know? Evidence Outcomes Evidence outcomes are the indication that a student is meeting an expectation at the mastery level. How do we know that a student can do it? 21 st Century and PWR Skills Inquiry Questions: Sample questions intended to promote deeper thinking, reflection and refined understandings precisely related to the grade level expectation. Relevance and Application: Examples of how the grade level expectation is applied at home, on the job or in a real-world, relevant context. Nature of the Discipline: The characteristics and viewpoint one keeps as a result of mastering the grade level expectation. Evidence Outcomes Evidence outcomes are the indication that a student is meeting an expectation at the mastery level. How do we know that a student can do it? 21 st Century and PWR Skills Inquiry Questions: Sample questions intended to promote deeper thinking, reflection and refined understandings precisely related to the grade level expectation. Relevance and Application: Examples of how the grade level expectation is applied at home, on the job or in a real-world, relevant context. Nature of the Discipline: The characteristics and viewpoint one keeps as a result of mastering the grade level expectation. 3/29/2012 BVSD Curriculum Essentials 8 STANDARDS TEMPLATE Content Area: NAME OF CONTENT AREA Standard: The topical organization of an academic content area. Prepared Graduates: The P-12 concepts and skills that all students who complete the Colorado education system must master to ensure their success in a postsecondary and workforce setting High School and Gra
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