Adobe PhotoShop 7.0. Computer Training Centre, UCC 1

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Adobe Photo Shop _ Introduction: Adobe PhotoShop 7.0 is a powerful tool for creating, editing, manipulating and maintaining images both for the web and in the printed medium. It can be used to create spectacular
Adobe Photo Shop _ Introduction: Adobe PhotoShop 7.0 is a powerful tool for creating, editing, manipulating and maintaining images both for the web and in the printed medium. It can be used to create spectacular graphics for a web site, or to enhance digital photographs for vital presentations. Whether you re maintaining a personal website or editing images on behalf of your department, a good basic knowledge of PhotoShop can help you on your way to a professional level of graphic design and implementation in your work. This course will be broken down into four main areas: 1. Introduction to the Work Area: - a look at the various tools, toolbars, palettes and menus that you will use in Photoshop 2. Creating Simple Graphics: - Learn how to create banners, logos and buttons for the web and presentations 3. Digital Image Manipulation: - Learn how to manipulate digital photographs with such techniques as Red Eye removal and other more complex image manipulation practices 4. Web Site Composites: - Learn how to create the look and feel of a complete web site, cutting the graphics to fit the web page and other issues involved with producing graphics for use on the web There is, of course, a lot more to Adobe Photoshop than can be covered in this course. The comprehensive help file that comes with Photoshop can help a user to find information on aspects not covered in this manual, and there is a wide variety of online tutorials available, with the best obtained through The time constraints of this course should not, however, preclude the achievement of a good solid grounding in the basics of Photoshop, sufficient to the everyday graphics needs of most departments. As always, we hope you enjoy the course and encourage questions and feedback throughout the day. 1 _ 1. Introduction to the Work Area: In this section we will look at the tools, palettes, menus and work area of Photoshop. We will go through the main tools, looking at what each one does. We will then go through the menus, identifying the functions contained within each one. Then we will look at the different toolbars and palettes that give Photoshop its great functionality. The Tool Palette: To the right we have the tool palette. This contains the tools you need for image creating, editing and manipulation. The tools with black arrows at the bottom right corner indicate that there are more options within that tool. To access the other tools within that tool, just left click the mouse and hold it down. The currently selected tool is the move tool. Hovering the cursor over the tool will give you its name and the keyboard shortcut to access it (in the case of the move tool Shift + M will automatically select it for you). The tools in the top four sections of the tool palette are as follows (moving anticlockwise): Marquee: this tool allows you to select an area of an image within a particular shape. The default is rectangle, but there is also an ellipse selection as well as a single row and single column marquee Lasso: this tool allows you to select irregular areas of an image. In the image to the right, the polygonal lasso tool is showing. There is also the freehand lasso tool and the magnetic lasso tool (which will find the edge of an element within the image you are trying to select). Crop: this tool allows you to cut an image to a particular segment. Healing Brush: this tool allows you correct imperfections, Figure 1.1 causing them to disappear into the surrounding image. You use the healing brush tool to paint with sampled pixels from an image or pattern. The other 2 _ tool that this button allows you to select is the patch tool. The patch tool lets you repair a selected area with pixels from another area or a pattern. Clone Stamp: this tool takes a sample of an image, which you can then apply over another image or part of the same image. Each stroke of the tool paints on more of the sample. The other tool that can be selected here is the pattern stamp tool, which lets you paint with a pattern. You can select a pattern from the pattern libraries or create your own patterns. Eraser: this tool allows you to erase parts of your image. You can also select the background eraser tool or magic eraser tool which allow you to erase specific parts of the image. Smudge: this tool allows you to create an effect similar to the effect caused when working with pencils and you smudge an area of the image with your finger. The companion tools to this tool are the blur tool and the sharpen tool which allow you to blur the focus or sharpen the focus of an area of the image Path Selection: used for selecting vector images. Vector images are images that can be resized without loosing resolution because they are based on mathematical formula as opposed to bitmapped or raster images, which are constructed using a finite number of pixels. The companion tool to this is the direct selection tool, which allows you select a path segment. Pen: used for creating straight lines and smooth curves with precision. The image created is a vector image. There are a number of companion tools to this tool freeform pen, add anchor point, delete anchor point and convert point tools Notes: this tool is used to add notes to an image. They are not part of the image but can be useful when sharing the image as the image author can add valuable information about the image to the image file so others can appreciate what is intended by an image. The companion tool to this tool is the audio annotation tool, which allows a user with a microphone attached to their computer to add a speaker note to the image to convey information to other users of the image. Hand: allows you to move an image around the screen to allow access to various parts of the image when the image is too big for the screen 3 _ Zoom: allows you to magnify/de-magnify areas of an image to allow for more detailed work Eyedropper: this tool allows you to set the colour of the foreground of the colour palette from a colour within the image. The companion tools are the colour sampler tool and the measure tool, which can be used to get the exact coordinates and pixel height and width of any part of the image Rectangle: this tool allows you to draw different shapes, with the default set to rectangle. You can also draw rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons, lines and custom shapes. Text: this tool allows you to add text to your image. You can also change the orientation of text to the vertical type tool. Sponge: this tool allows you to subtly change the colour of the image, by altering the colour saturation of the area adjusted by the sponge tool. The other options under this tool are the dodge and burn tools, which are used to lighten or darken an area of the image respectively. Gradient: a gradient allows you to fill an area of an image with a colour range, where the colours gradually run into each other. The other option with this tool is the paint bucket or fill tool, which you would use to fill a selected area of the image with a single colour. History Brush: this tool allows you paint with the source data from a specified history state or snapshot. The other option is the art history brush which allows for painting with stylized strokes from a specified history state or snapshot Paint Brush: this tool is as you would imagine used to Fig1.1b paint on an image. There are numerous different brush shapes and sizes that allow the user to create different textures to their image. The other option to this tool is the pencil tool. 4 _ Slice: the slice tool allows you to divide an image into sections, making it easier to break up the image for putting it on the web or for making composite images. The second option under the slice tool is the slice select tool, which allows you to apply modifications to a slice that you have created. Magic Wand: the magic wand tool is another tool that you can use to select an area on the screen. It is used when you want to select an area that contains the same colour throughout. Tool Options: As you can see there are a wide variety of tools to be used. Each tool also comes with it s own set of tool options. These options allow the user to fine tune aspects of the tools usage and are different for each tool in question. Fig 1.2 In Fig. 1.2, we see the tool options for the text tool. The first item in the tool options palette is the tool presets button that allows you to access preset combinations of options, which you may have saved in the past. This feature allows for you to save common combinations of options so that you do not have to reset them every time you use the tool. In the text tool options, the next button allows you to change the orientation of the text. Following that we have the options to change the font and the font style. Next, we have the drop down list to change the font size, while the types of anti-aliasing you want to set follow this. Anti-Aliasing is a technique where by extra pixels are added at the edges of shapes in order to give them a smoother, less pixelated look. The alignment buttons and the colour swatch for choosing the colour of your text in turn follow this. The second last button on the tool options palette allows you to create warped text while the final button allows you to open up a dialogue box for further character and paragraph options. As we have said, these are just the text tool options as we use different tools, we will see their different options in use. 5 _ Menus: We can also see the menu bar in Fig. 1.2, showing the different menus that the user can choose from. Each of these contains a drop down list of even more options: The file menu enables the user to perform operations such as open, close or save. Indeed, there are even a number of different save options to enable the user to save the image in the most appropriate context. The edit menu offers a range of options for editing the image. One of the most popular features that we will use from this menu is the transform option, which allows us to scale, rotate or skew and image element. The image menu gives options for working with the image such as resizing the amount of pixels in the image, or increasing the size of the work area or canvas. In PhotoShop, images are contained on layers. The advantage of this is that we can compose a more complex graphic from independent graphic elements based on separate layers. Each layer can be edited separately without compromising the overall integrity of the image file. To this end we have a layers menu for performing operations to do with the management of the different layers within an image. The next menu along the menu bar is the select menu, which allows you to perform operations on selections. Next to the select menu is the filter menu. This menu provides the user with many different filters that they can apply to their image to create different effects. The view menu allows you to such things as set a colour set for the document, turn on rulers, zoom in and out etc. Second to last we have the window menu, which allows you to turn on and off the different palettes that we will use in the course of our work with Photoshop. The last menu on the menu bar is the help menu. This is quite a comprehensive feature, due to the complex nature of the Photoshop package. As it will be impossible to demonstrate every single aspect of Photoshop s 6 _ functionality, this feature will be a positive aid to you in your work with Photoshop after today. Palettes: In the work area there are a number of palettes visible to the user. These palettes contain useful functions for manipulating images. A complete list of palettes and the option to turn them on or off is visible under the window menu. Each palette can be made visible by clicking the tab with its name on it. The most important palettes are: The History palette, which allows you to view the history of actions that you have performed on an image and to undo those actions while also providing you with the opportunity to save these actions for repeated use. The Layers palette, which allows you to efficiently manage the different layers in your image. From here, you can lock a layer so that it can t be Fig 1.3 edited, add image effects, create and delete layers, set the opacity of a layer and many other things that help you to create images cleanly and efficiently The colour, styles and brushes palettes are also two very important palettes, giving you continued variety when creating and manipulating images. Individual palettes will be discussed as we meet them in the course of this class. 7 _ 2. Creating Simple Graphics: Now that we have looked at the workspace we will begin to create simple graphics. We will learn to use some of the more common tools and palettes to create some simple banners, logos and buttons for use on both web sites and in presentations. When it comes to these types of graphics it is quite often the best practice to keep things as simple as possible, only using a few colours, and keeping designs basic. Creating a Logo: We will start by creating a simple logo. Let s say the company Discover Ireland have asked us to come up with a new corporate logo for them that will be used on their website and in promotional literature. It must identify the company at a glance, giving some impression as to what the company stands for. To that end, the simple combination of the outline map of Ireland, the initials D I and a magnifying glass should convey what it is we want. To begin we must open a new image. From the File menu, go to New (ctrl+n). We are then presented with the New Image dialog box (Fig. 2.1), which allows us to set certain properties of the image before we begin editing. For this image we are going to go with a custom size, which will allow us to set the width and height Fig 2.1 according to our own needs. In this case we will set the dimensions to 300 pixels wide by 300 pixels high, which should give us plenty of room to design our logo. We can, of course crop the image at a later stage (or indeed 8 _ increase the canvas size should the need arise). We leave the resolution at 72 pixels per inch, as this is the default resolution for graphics to be used on the web. When creating an image for print, it is recommended that the image be 300 pixels per inch. Leave the mode set to RGB (stands for Red, Green, Blue) and the contents set to transparent. You can always add a filled layer later for your background when you know what it s going to be. Fig 2.2 Fig 2.2 shows your workspace after launching the new image. We start by renaming our initial layer to background. It is always a good idea to give the different layers meaningful names so that you know what elements of the image each layer contains. To rename the layer, double-click the name of the layer and change the name to background, as seen in Fig 2.3. We will rename additional layers as and when we add them. Fig 2.3 Next we will create a new layer to contain our map of Ireland. The new layer button is circled in Fig Rename the layer Ireland. Next, we 9 _ will select a colour for the line that we will paint. To do this we double click on the foreground colour to launch the colour picker dialog box (Fig 2.4). Fig 2.4 Brush Tool Foreground Colour Colour Value The colour we want is some kind of green. A nice Irish green has a hexadecimal RGB value of *. Next we select the brush tool in order to begin our image and from the brushes palette we select an appropriate brush size and shape. For our purposes, the third brush down will be Fig 2.5 sufficient, but be aware of the other brushes available. Making sure that the Ireland layer is selected, begin your drawing. *: Colour of course is something that is quite subjective and up to you to decide whether or not it suits your purposes. There is significant talk of colour theory on the web and although it is out of the scope of this course, it is highly recommended that you familiarise yourself with some of the concepts involved so that you pick colours that complement each other in order to create the most visually appealing images. Some good sites include: 10 _ You should end up with something similar to Fig 2.6. Next we will use the paint bucket tool to fill the outline with Paint bucket tool green. When you select the Paint bucket tool, make sure the tool options setting are as seen in Fig 2.7. This will Fig 2.6 give you a solid fill colour and yet will leave a gap between the outline and the block of green fill. Fig 2.7 Once you have filled the outline, it would be a good idea to save your image. For the time being we will save it as a Photoshop Document (.psd file extension) but we may save it later as a JPEG or a GIF, depending on our needs. To save the document, go to File Save and in the Save dialog box, change the filename from untitled to DiscoverIreland_Logo and select the folder PSImages from the desktop in which to save the file. Make sure the Layers option is checked in the Save Options section so that you retain the layers and their associated information. When you are ready click Save and the file will be saved to the folder you specified. It is important to save your files regularly, especially when working with complicated image files, as you do not want to lose any changes you may have made in a particular session. 11 _ Next, we will create another layer, this time to contain the magnifying glass part of the image. Rename it magnifying glass and select the Rectangular Marquee tool. We want a circular or elliptical shape so we hold the mouse key down on the rectangular marquee so that we are presented with the other options and then we choose the Elliptical Marquee Tool so that we can draw a circular shape on our image. When we have the circle drawn to our liking (so that it covers most of the Ireland shape) we must then fill this selection with a colour using the Paint Bucket tool as we did earlier. In this case we have chosen an orange colour to stay with the Irish theme. The colour code for this orange is FF9933. With the orange circle still selected, we copy the layer press ctrl + c and ctrl + v to paste (or alternatively click and drag the active layer down as far as the new layer button within the layer palette). Our new layer should be called magnifying glass copy and we will use this layer to create a smaller circle and then in turn use that circle to delete an equal area from the original magnifying glass layer so that we can see through the shape. To begin this process, we will change the colour of the copied shape to white by filling the still-selected shape with the paint bucket. Then we go to Edit menu and select the Transform sub-menu. From this we select the scale option, which will add a frame around our selected circle with which we can scale the image down in size. To Fig 2.10 Fig 2.9 scale, place the cursor over the top left hand corner handle of the frame and while holding the shift key, drag the circle to 85% of its original size you can see the percentage of the original displayed within the tool options towards the top of your screen. Holding the shift key maintains the proportion between the height and 12 _ width so that you have the same shape as the original, just smaller. We then move this second circle so that its centre point is aligned as close as possible to the centre of the larger circle giving us the image as seen in Fig We must also commit transform by pressing the tick in the tool options bar. You will be unable to make any further edits until you have done this. If at any time you wish to cancel the transform, you click the cancel button next to the tick. Next, we will merge the two magnifying glass layers. This is achieved by first of all linking the two layers involved and then merging the linked layers. To link the two layers, we use the layer palette simply click the empty square beside the eye icon on the inactive layer that you want linked. A little chain link will a
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