A STUDY OF PROBLEMS FACED BY SPECIAL TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION UNDER SSA IN VARANASI DISTRICT. Shobhit Kumar Srivastava*

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42 A STUDY OF PROBLEMS FACED BY SPECIAL TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION UNDER SSA IN VARANASI DISTRICT Shobhit Kumar Srivastava* *Assistant Proffesor, Department of Education, Dhirendra Mahila
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42 A STUDY OF PROBLEMS FACED BY SPECIAL TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION UNDER SSA IN VARANASI DISTRICT Shobhit Kumar Srivastava* *Assistant Proffesor, Department of Education, Dhirendra Mahila P.G. College, Varanasi Contact: Abstract The development and growth of any special school is depends upon the resources available to special teacher. This paper investigates the problem faced by special teacher in inclusive education under SSA programme. This paper focuses on the problem which is faced by the special teachers at different aspect and it suggests that school administration should take suitable measures to solve the problem of teachers in special schools so that they help to increase the inclusiveness and improve teaching. Keywords: special school, SSA programme, special needs, inclusive education 43 Introduction Since time immemorial, education is the only source of overall development of human beings. Man as social animal, is also the result of education. International commission on education (1996) also accepts that education plays an important and fundamental role in the individuals' life and their social development. A society comprises of persons of different abilities, but education tries to make this heterogeneous set into a homogenous one. In this concern, the modern age is moving towards Education for All. The government of India is fully committed to the goal of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE). For promotion of UEE, the parliament of India has passed the constitutional (86th Amendment) act, making free and compulsory elementary education a fundamental right, for all the children in the age group of 6-14 years through inclusion of the new article 21A in part III of the constitution, as follows: 'The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the state may, by law, determine.' This amendment has given a new thrust to the education of Children With Special Needs (CWSN), as without including them the objective of UEE cannot be achieved. Beginning from the stage of extermination, disabled children were either killed or abandoned due to the misconception that they are totally useless and liability to the society. Now, the society has realized the mistake done and taken up the responsibility of providing them education and treating them as equal partners in the development of society Inclusion of such special children started few decades ago but it is still at its infancy in India. One of the most important issues that have been debated world over is concerned with how and where children with special educational needs can best be educated. Do these children need a specific form of care in special schools or should they be accommodated in regular schools, as far as possible and given extra help and attention? Worldwide trends are visible towards integration and inclusion of children with special education needs into main stream schools. Inclusive Education (IE) Inclusive Education (IE) is a new approach towards educating the children with disability and learning difficulties with that of normal ones within the same roof. It seeks to address the learning needs of all children with a specific focus on those who are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion. It implies all learners with or without disabilities being able to learn together through access to common pre-school provisions, schools and community educational setting with an appropriate network of support services. This is possible only in flexible education system that assimilates the needs of diverse range of learners and adapts itself to meet these needs. The principle of inclusive education was adopted at the World conference on special needs education: access and quality (Salamanca, Spain 1994) and was restated at the World Education Forum 44 (Dakar, Senegal 2000). The idea of inclusion is further supported by the United Nation's standard rules on equalization of opportunities for person with disability proclaiming participation and equality for all. Of late, a consensus has emerged among Indian intellectuals and pedagogues for adopting inclusive education in mainstream schools. Special Education The term Special Need Education (SNE) has come into use as a replacement for the term Special Education, as the older one was mainly understood to refer the education of all those children and youth whose needs arise from disabilities or learning difficulties. The statement affirms: those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within child centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs. Moreover, the concept of Special Need Education extends beyond those who may be included in handicapped categories to cover those who are failing in school for a wide variety of other reasons that are known to be likely to impede a child's optimal progress. Whether or not this more broadly defined group of children are in need of additional support depends on the extent to which school needs to support their curriculum, teaching and/or to provide additional human or material resources so as to stimulate efficient and effective learning for these pupils. (International Standard Classification of Education ISCED, 1997). Initial Experiments on Integrated Education in India The early attempts to include CWSN in regular schools were through Project Integrated Education for the Disabled (PIED) and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP). District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) The success of PIED led to the inclusion of the component of Integrated Education of the Disabled (IED) in DPEP, a scheme launched by the government of India for the development of elementary education. At present, IED in DPEP is going on in 242 districts of 18 states. In these states, approximately 6.21 lakh children with special needs have been enrolled in regular schools with adequate support services. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) A recent initiative of the government of India to Universalize Elementary Education is Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). SSA is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. However, UEE cannot be achieved unless children with special needs are also provided access to education. Hence, education of CWSN is an essential part of the SSA framework. Education of Children with Special Needs SSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an endeavor to provide eight years of quality education to all children in the 6-14 age groups by The objectives of SSA mainly focus on increasing access, enrolment and 45 retention of all children as well as improving the quality of education. The objectives of SSA can only be realized, if CWSN are also included under the ambit of elementary education. Realizing the importance of integrating special children in regular schools, SSA framework has made adequate provisions for educating CWSN. Provisions for CWSN under SSA SSA offers the following provisions to CWSN: Upto Rs.1200/- per child for integration of disabled children, as per specific proposal, per year. District plan for children with special needs will be formulated within the Rs.1200 per child norm. Involvement of resource institutions to be encouraged. Approach and Options for CWSN in SSA SSA ensures that every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided meaningful and quality education. Hence, SSA has adopted a zero rejection policy. This means that no child having special needs should be deprived of the right to education. This has also been strengthened by the 86th amendment to the constitution, which makes elementary education a fundamental right of every child. The SSA framework, in line with the persons with disabilities (equal opportunities, protection of rights & full participation) Act, 1995 mentions that a child with special needs should be taught in an environment, which is best, suited to his/her learning needs. These might include special schools, EGS & AIE or even home-based education. SSA also offers each district, flexibility to plan for Inclusive Education (IE) activities, depending on the number of children identified and the resources available to effectively implement the IE programme. a. Awareness Components of Education of CWSN under SSA The interventions suggested under SSA for inclusive education of disabled children are as follows: b. Early detection and identification c. Functional and formal assessment d. Educational placement e. Preparation of Individualized Educational Plan f. Aids and appliances g. Teacher training h. Resource support 46 i. Strengthening of special schools j. Removal of architectural barriers k. Monitoring and evaluation These various steps needed for proper implementation of inclusive education of children with special needs under SSA. According to Education Commission ( ) Teachers will continue to play a crucial role in the formulation and implementation of educational program . The responsibility of implementing universal and inclusive design in integrating Person With Disabilities (PWDs) in to main stream society largely depends upon the teachers particularly special teachers. Since special teachers are key persons to implement inclusive education so the role of special teacher is of crucial importance. Role of Special Teachers Special teachers are specially trained teachers capable of teaching children with special needs in all settings. Their main role is to provide remedial assistance to a child in those content areas in which he/she is having comprehension problems in a regular classroom. This assistance is ideally provided in a resource room. A special teacher also advises the general teacher on how to cope with the needs of special children in the regular classroom. These special teachers can either be appointed by the state and district authorities to function at the block level or their support can be obtained through special schools, competent NGOs or IEDC scheme of MHRD. Some general teachers could also be given long-term training to provide to the CWSN those support services that they may require. The main functions of these teachers will be: a. Identification and assessment of CWSN b. Teach special skills like braille to a visually impaired child, use of hearing aids etc. c. Advise the regular class teacher on problems encountered by children with disabilities d. Suggest necessary curricular modifications or adaptations and classroom strategies e. Assist disabled children during and after school hours f. Undertake parent counselling and community mobilization g. Be in-charge of the resource room at the BRC. According to census 2001, there are 2.19 crore disabled individuals in India and they constitute 2.13% of the total population and in UP, out of 263,060 children identified with various disabilities 20,249 VI, 37,952 HI, 111,386 orthopaedic impaired, 25,104 mentally impaired and 67,669 others; 240,923 were integrated into the general education system. It has created a realization that with out knowing and removing the problems of special teachers and other implementing components, the goal of universalization of elementary education (UEE) by 2010 can not be achieved. 47 Main Objectives The main objectives of the present study were given below: a. To identify the problems faced by special teachers in implementing Inclusive Education. b. To suggest measures to successfully implement inclusive education under SSA. c. To study the perception of special teachers towards Inclusive Education. Method The survey method was used in the study. Survey is an important method, which involves a clearly defined problem and definite objectives. Population As the objective of this research is to identify the problems faced by special teachers in implementing inclusive education under SSA at Varanasi, the special teachers of Varanasi working under SSA were taken as population. In the present study a sample of 20 special teachers working under SSA was selected from the different blocks of Varanasi district. A purposive sample is selected by some arbitrary method because it is known to be a representative of the total population. The idea is to pick out the sample in relation to some criteria, which are considered important for the particular study. Tools As no standardized tool was available to collect the data, a questionnaire and a opinionnaire were constructed by the investigator. The questionnaire consists of 25 items while opinionnaire also consists of 25 items, which helped the investigator to collect different factual information from the sample. Data Collection The data were collected from the area already mentioned somewhere else. For collection of data 20 special teacher working under SSA in different blocks of the district were contacted by the investigator and was told to them that whatever data was collected, was only for research use and the name would remain confidential. The data collected would not be misused anyway. The tools were presented to them with a request to give responses to their own freely. Scoring and Preparation of Master Chart Its scoring was easy as reply was. The obtained scores were inserted in master chart in a 48 consolidated form for further classification, tabulation, analysis and interpretation. The prepared master chart has been enclosed in appendices. Statistics Applied Statistical method depends on the nature of the data. The data collected are objective in nature. As the objectives of this research work are to identify problems of special teacher in implementing inclusive education under SSA in Varanasi district and the perception of special teachers towards inclusive education, percentage is an appropriate statistical method with the help of which the problems of special teacher in implementing inclusive education under SSA can be identified and also the perception towards inclusive education can be known. Data Analysis 01: Availability of Aids and Appliances In the questionnaire item no. 1-4 were related with the problems regarding availability of aids and appliances. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 1. Table 1 Availability of Aids and Appliances 1 20 Yes No Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage The above table reveals that only 45 percent teachers had problems regarding availability of aids and appliances whereas 55 percent hadn't. 02: Cooperation of Colleagues & Society In the questionnaire item no. 5-7, were related with the problems regarding cooperation of colleagues and society. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 2. Table 2 Cooperation of Colleagues & Society 2 20 Yes No Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 49 The above table shows that only percent teachers had problems regarding cooperation of colleagues and society whereas percent hadn't. 03: Cooperation of Government Officials In the questionnaire item no. 8, 15, 16 & 21 were related with the problems regarding cooperation of government officials. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 3. Table 3 Cooperation of Government Officials 2 20 Yes No Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage The above table shows that only 55 percent teachers had problems regarding cooperation of government officials whereas 45 percent had not such problems. 04: School Administration In the questionnaire item no. 9, 13, 14 & 24 were related with the problems regarding school administration. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 4. Table 4 School Administration 4 20 Yes No Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage The above table reveals that only 42.5 percent teachers had problems regarding school administration whereas 57.5 percent had not such problems. 05: Finance and Security In the questionnaire item no & 25 were related with the problems regarding finance and security. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 5. 50 Table 5 Finance and Security 5 20 Yes No Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage The above table reveals that only 60 percent teachers had problems regarding finance and security whereas 40 percent hadn't. 06: Teachers Work Load load. In the questionnaire item no. 22 & 23 were related with the problems regarding teachers work Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 6. Table 6 Teachers Work Load 6 20 The above table shows that only 60 percent teachers had problems regarding teachers work load whereas 40 percent hadn't. of Special Focus In the questionnaire item no. 18 was related with the problems regarding inadequate salary. Findings related to above item have been given below in table 7. Item Yes Yes No Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage No Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 51 The above table reveals that 100 percent teachers reported that they hadn't got a lucrative salary as per their work. Results 01: Philosophy of Inclusive Education In the opinionnaire item no. 1-4, 6, 19 & 24 were related with the perception towards philosophy of inclusive education. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 8. Table 8 Philosophy of Inclusive Education The above table reveals that only 70 percent teachers were agree with the philosophy of inclusive education, percent weren't whereas 7.86 were in confusion. 02: School Management In the opinionnaire item no. 5, 12, 17, 18, 22 & 23 were related with the perception towards school management in inclusive setting. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 9. Table 9 School Management 2 20 The above table shows that only percent teachers were agree with the school management in inclusive setting, 30 percent weren't whereas 5.83 were in confusion. 03: Regular Teachers In the opinionnaire item no. 7, 13 & 14 were related with the perception towards regular teachers in inclusive setting. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 10. 52 Table 10 Regular Teachers The above table shows that only percent teachers were agree with the role of regular teachers in inclusive setting, percent weren't whereas were in confusion. 04: Socio-educational Achievement In the opinionnaire item no. 8-11, 15 & 16 were related with the perception towards socioeducational achievement in inclusive setting. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 11. Table 11 Socio-educational Achievement The above table show s that only percent teachers were agree with the socio-educational achievement in inclusive setting, percent weren't whereas 2.5 were in confusion. 05: Need of Governmental Support In the opinionnaire item no. 20, 21 & 25 were related with the perception towards need of governmental support in inclusive setting. Findings related to above dimension have been given below in table 12. Table 12 Need of Governmental Support 53 The above table indicates that only percent teachers were agree with the socio-educational achievement in inclusive setting, 1.67 percent weren't whereas no were in confusion. Chart 02: wise (Perceptions) in Percentage of Special Focus: In the opinionnaire item no. 1 was related with the perception towards right to education. Findings related to above item have been given below in table 13. Table 13 wise (Perceptions) in percentage The above table reveals that only 90 percent teachers were agree with the statement that every child irrespective of abnormalities has right to education in regular class, 10 percent weren't whereas no were in confusion. In the opinionnaire item no. 5 was related with the perception towards role of schools. Findings related to above item have been given below in table 14. Table 14 Perception towards Role of Schools The above table shows that only 90 percent teachers were agree with the statement that every school should necessarily accept the inclusive educat
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