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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OM8No.o7o4-olee Form Approved Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, includingthe time for revimn_nginstructions,
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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OM8No.o7o4-olee Form Approved Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, includingthe time for revimn_nginstructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comment= regarding this burden estknate or sny other aspect of this co,action of information, Including suggestionsfor reducingthis burden, to Washington HeBdquar[ersSer4icas, Directorate fo Information Operetlonnend Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA , and to the Office Of Management end Budget, Psperwork Reduction ProJDct( L Washington, DC AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave b/ank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1998 Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Geologic, Geoarchaeologic, and Historical Investigation of the Discovery Site of Ancient Remains in Columbia Park, Kennewick, Washington 6_ AUTHOR(S) Lillian D. Wakeley, William L. Murphy, Joseph B. Dunbar, Andrew G. Warne, Frederick L. Briuer, (WES). Paul R. Nickens (consulting archaeologist), w/contributions by Douglas Wysocki (NSSC) and Andrei Sama-Wojcicki (USGS). 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES] 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, REPORTNUMBER Vicksburg, MS Consulting Archaeologist, 5168 North Windriver Place, Tucson, AZ Technical Report GL qational Soil Survey Center, Fed Bldg, Ran 152, MS 33, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE U.S. Geological Survey, Tephrochronology Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME{S/ AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING United States Army Engineer District, Walla Walla AGENCYREPORTNUMBER 201 North Third Walla Walla, WA SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA ]12a, DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The site of the discovery of the ancient human remains known as Kennewick Man has gained international attention. On- :site study during December 1997 focused principally on one question: Is the geologic setting consistent with the 9,000-yr age reported for the human remains? Other objectives for the study included determining if there was evidence for a specific cultural affiliation for the remains, if there was evidence for either intentional or accidental burial, and if the stratigraphic layers were in place. The principal landform at the site is a terrace of the Columbia River, comprising finegrained sediments accumulated in quiet water. The presence of the Mazama tephra, a volcanic ash later correlated throughout the Pacific Northwest, established that this landform is more than 6,700 years old. Stratigraphic horizons traceable over the length of the study site provided datable materials to indicate that the layers are relatively undisturbed and span at least 15,000 years of geologic time. No evidence for cultural affiliation was encountered, and the question of accidental versus intentional burial is still open. The limited scope of this study did not allow definition of the tl_'eedimensional geometry of the landform and its relationship to regional geology. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 11;. NUMBER OF PAGES Alluvial deposition Kennewick Man River Terrace Bank erosion Lake Wallula Shell middens Columbia River Maz_ma tephra Soils Flood deposits Pasco Basin Stratigraphy 16. PRICECODE Geoarchaeology Pedogenesis Tephrochronology Geomorphology Pleistocene Touchet beds Holocene Radiometricdatin_ Vibracore 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OFREPORT OFTHISPAGE OFABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified - Unclassified NSN Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) PrescribedbyANSI Std. Z US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Station Experiment September 1998 Technical ReportGL Geologic, Geoarchaeologic, and Historical Investigation of the Discovery Site of Ancient Remains in Columbia Park, Kennewick, Washington by Lillian D. Wakeley, William L. Murphy, Joseph B. Dunbar, Andrew G. Wame, and Frederick L. Briuer, WES Paul R. Nickens, Consulting Archaeologist with contributions by Douglas WysockL National Soil Survey Center Andrei Sama-Wojcicki, U.S. Geological Survey Approved For PublicRelease; DistributionIs Unlimited WES Prepared for U.S. Army Engineer District Walla Walla it, The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products Technical Report GL September 1998 Geologic, Geoarchaeologic, and Historical Investigation of the Discovery Site of Ancient Remains in Columbia Park, Kennewick, Washington by Lillian D. Wakeley, William L. Murphy, Joseph B. Dunbar, Andrew G. Wame, and Frederick L. Briuer U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS Paul R. Nickens, Consulting 5168 North Windriver Place Tucson, AZ Archaeologist with contributions by Douglas Wysocki National Soil Survey Center Federal Building, Room 152, MS Centennial Mall North Lincoln, NE Andrei Sarna-Wojcicki United States Geological Survey Tephrochronology Laboratory 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, CA Approvedfor publicrelease;distributionis unlimited Prepared for U.S. Army Engineer District, Walla Walla 201 North Third Walla Walla, WA q- q8 QUS Army Corps,-... _. of Engineers --,.._,,,=, WaterwaysExperiment _T_,..._ Station ' -_- FOR INFORMATIONCONTACT: PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICE U.$. ARMY ENGINEER ENVmONUEm_. WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION 3909 HALLS FERRY ROAD VICKSBURG. MISSISSIPPI PHONE (601) qt_q e WES FINAL REPORT - SEPTEMBER 1998 Contents Preface... vii Conversion Factors, Non-Sl and SI Units of Measurement... ix I Acronyms and Abbreviations... Executive Summary... xi xiii 1 Purposeand plans l Purpose of geologic investigations... I 1.2 Applications for ARPA permits Phase One WES study Planning for Phase Two study Orientation meeting for site activities Participants and observers General geologic setting of Columbia Park Background research Summary of the geologic setting of the Tri-Cities area Historic context for the Columbia Park site Introduction Methods Prehistoric and historic aboriginal use of the area Non-Native settlement and historical developments in the vicinity of the project area Past land use at the Columbia Park site On-site investigations Introduction Definitionand selectionof bank profiles Profile preparation and sediment screening Geologic description of profiles iii WESFINALREPORT-SEPTEMBER Site mapping and surveying Geophysical survey Soil cores Laboratory analyses Sediment samples Analytical conducted Verification oftephra Radiocarbon dating X-radiography of soils Results of laboratory and other analyses Stratigraphic relationships from cores and profiles Results of determinative mineral and chemical analyses Other data for mineralogy and chemical composition of sediments Results of other laboratory tests and observations Radiography Radiometric dates and carbon content of sediments Geophysical survey Archaeological survey Interpretation of geologic setting Introduction The stratigraphic unit associated with the ancient remains Depositional environments and subsequent geologic processes Time sequence Geomorphology Modem geomorphic processes Geoarchaeologic interpretation Conclusions and recommendations Conclusions about geologic setting and age of the Kennewick site Conclusions about site archaeology Recommendations References... _ iv B ._0 - WES FINAL REPORT- SEPTEMBER 1998 List of Figures Figure I. Figure 2. Portion of Kennewick 7-1/2 min topographic map with photo inset of study area Excerpt from geologic map of Pasco Basin, centered on Kennewick (from Reidel and Fecht 1994) Figure 3. On-site consultation about profile locations with representatives of all study teams (from left: Drs. Huckleberry, Stafford, Chatters, Wakeley, Jaehnig, and Briuer) Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. CPP 268, a stepped profile, with Wanapum Band observer Aerial photo of study area (inset of Figure 1) showing locations of profiles and cross sectin BB' CPP 233, single-face profile exposing 176 cm of bank sediment CPP 054, stepped back at three levels for minimum site disturbance (core CPC located on step-back terrace through center of photo) Figure 8. Screening sediment at CPP 334 Figure 9. Detail of sediment screening (gloves worn only in coldest weather) Figure 10. Vibracore device at operated by WES and CENWW researchers Figure 11. Vibracoring with reservoir pool level lowered, near screening and profile sites Figm'e 12. Topographic contour map of area from CPP 044 to 093, indicating profile and core locations, section A-A' also indicated Figure 13. Correlation of profile along line BB' (indicated in Figure 5), also showing location of sample taken for various tests Figure 14. Continuous layer oftephra (Unit III) at the west end of the study site Figure 15. Composite stratigraphic section for Columbia Park study area Figure 16. Looking east from CPP 080 to CPP 054 along bankline, units I through IV exposed =.- t.- WES FINAL REPORT- SEPTEMBER 1998 Figure 17. Correlation among profiles and cores in the immediate vicinity of the discovery site (section A-A' from Figure 12) Figure 18a. SEM image of Kennewick site tephra Figure 18b. Photomicrograph oftephra in transmitted polarized light Figure 19. Print from radiograph of Vibracore sample from CPC 044, to cm depth Figure 20. Portion of 1930 aerial photograph of Kermewick, WA; Phase Two study area Appendix A: Scope of Work and List of Participants and Observers, Phase Two Study, Kennewick Site... A1 Appendix B: Discovery of Ancient Remains at Kermewick Site and Subsequent Events... B1 Appendix C: Excerpts from Preliminary Report of the Archaeological Component to the Geologic Investigation of the Discovery Site of Ancient Remains, Columbia Park, Kennewick, WA... CI Appendix D: Profile and Core Descriptions from Phase Two Study, Kennewick Site... D1 Appendix E: Pedologic and Geomorphic Assessment of the Kennewick Site... E1 Appendix F: Site Maps from CENWW Site Survey, December F1 Appendix G: Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation at the Kennewick ManSite... G1 Appendix H: Tephrochronology Report... H1 Appendix I: Reports of Radiocarbon Dating Analyses... I 1 vi -._ (l_li_ ] - 11 _o.. WES FINAL REPORT- SEPTEMBER 1998 Preface This report describes the investigations conducted by the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) at the discovery site of ancient remains known as Kennewick Man in Columbia Park, Kennewick, WA. This study was conducted in support of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Walla Walla (CENWW), as authorized under Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request (MIPR) No. E Mr. John Leier was technical point of contact (POC) for CENWW during Phase One investigations in October Mr. Ray Tracy was CENWW technical POC during the December 1997 Phase Two investigations, which are the principal subject of this report. Ms. Lynda Nutt became CENWW POC following completion of Phase Two on-site activities, during preparation of this report. The report was revised and published under CENWW MIPR No. W68SBV Dr. Lillian D. Wakeley, Chief, Engineering Geology Branch, Geotechnical Laboratory (GL), was principal investigator for the WES team and site coordinator during Phase Two field investigations. WES team members included Mr. Joseph B. Dunbar, Dr. Andrew G. Warne, and Mr. William L. Murphy, GL, and Dr. Frederick L. Briuer, Environmental Laboratory. Archaeologists Dr. Paul R. Niekens and Mr. Ray Tracy participated in the onsite investigations of Phase Two. Dr. Nickens conducted the research required to prepare Chapter 3 of this report describing the historical context of the Columbia Park site. Dr. Douglas Wysocki, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE, also participated significantly in the on-site study. His ideas were excerpted into Chapter 7 of this report and are included as Appendix E. Dr. Andrei Sarna- Wojcicki, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, performed confirmatory analyses on the tephra found on site. His letter report is included as Appendix H. Dr. Jack McGeehin, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, coordinated radiocarbon dating of soil samples, results of which are in Appendix I. The authors are grateful to these scientists for their expertise and enthusiasm and for the professional cooperation extended by their agencies during this study. We also are grateful to Dr. Francis R. McManamon, National Park Service, for his input to the scope of work and review of the report of this project. O. '_ vii WES FINAL REPORT-SEPTEMBER 1998 Two groups that participated in on-site activities with the WES team had permits under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA). Dr. Gary Huckleberry, Washington State University (WSU), wrote the first ARPA permit application for geological investigation 0fthe Kermewick site and was principal investigator for the WSU team. Dr. Manfred Jaehnig was principal investigator for study under the ARPA permit submitted by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatiila Indian Reservation. The technical proposal from Dr. Huckleberry's original application and the on-site cooperation of both ARPA-permitted principal investigators contributed significantly to the technical merit of this study. The report includes co-mingled English and metric units of measure. ViES field research was conducted using metric units, the CENWW base map was surveyed in English units, and various other maps and sources of information used one or the other. In this report, measurements are reported in the units used for collecting the data. A list of conversion factors is provided. Overall direction at WES for this report was provided by Dr. Lillian D. Wakeley, Acting Chief, Earthquake Engineering & Geosciences Division, and Dr. William F. Marcuson III, Director, GL. At the time of publication of this report, Director of WES was Dr. Robert W. Whalin. Commander was COL Robin R. Cababa, EN. The contents of this report are not to be used for advertj._ing, pubhcatlon, or protnotio_lallnlrposes CitationoftradenamesdoesnotconstituteanoJfictal endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. viii... _ WES FINAL REPORT - SEPTEMBER 1998 Conversion Factors, Non-SI and SI Unitsof Measurement Non-SI and SI units of measurement follows: used in this report can be converted as Multiply By ToObtain a6res 4, square meters acres hectares feet meters feet centimeters inches 2.54 centimeters miles (U.S, statute) kilometers ounces(mass) grams _ounds (mass) kilograms _ounds (mass) grams square miles (U.S. statute) square kilometers centimeters 0,0328 ft centimeters inches grams pounds(mass) grams ounces (mass) hectares acres kilograms pounds (mass) kilometers miles (U_S. statute) meters feet squaremeters acres square kilometers square miles (U.S. statute) ix VVESFINAL REPORT-SEPTEMBER 1998 X WES FINAL REPORT-SEPTEMBER 1999 Acronyms and Abbreviations AMS ARPA ASTM AcceleratorMass Spectrometry Archaeological Resources Protection Act American Society for Testing and Materials C DegreeCelsius CENWW cm CPC CPP CTUIR EEGD EM ft GIS GL GLO GPR I.D, in. km m MHz U.S. Army Engineer District, Walla WaUa centimeter(s) ColumbiaParkCore Columbia Park Profile Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Earthquake Engineering and Geosciences Division electromagnetic foot,feet GeographicalInfoimation System GeotechnicalLaboratory General Land Office GroundPenetratingRadar insidediameter inch(es) kilometer(s) meter(s) megahertz._ (_ i -.- WES FINAL REPORT- SEPTEMBER 1998 MIPR MSL n.d. NGVD p pp POC PVC SEM sq USAE USGS WES WSU XRD XRF YI&IC yr yr B.P. Military Interdepar_unental Purchase Request MeanSeaLevel nodate National Geodetic Vertical Datum pagepages Pointof Contact polyvinylchloride Scanning Electron Microscopy square United States Army Engineer United States Geological Survey WaterwaysExperiment Station Washington State University X-rayPowder Diffraction X-rayFluorescence Yakima Irrigation and Improvement Company year(s) yearsbefore present ± plusorminus WES FINAL REPORT- SEPTEMBER 1998 Executivesummary During December 1997, a research team from the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted geologic investigations at a site in Columbia Park, Kennewick, WA where human remains had been found in the summer of This study was conducted at the request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Walla Walla (CENWW), in support of the Corps' resource stewardship responsibilities and to represent the Federal interest in legal issues related to the remains known as Kennewick Man. It was coordinated with concomitant studies of the same site conducted by two separate groups to which permits had been issued by CENWW under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA). The two principal questions addressed by the WES study were: a. What age is indicated by geologic evidence at the study site7 Asked another way, does the geologic evidence at the site support the age indicated by earlier age-dating of the remains at approximately 9,000 years? b. Are there any indicators of specific cultural affiliation for the remains? Although the remains were not recovered in place in the sediments, it was important to recognize the possibility that cultural materials related to the remains might be recovered at the site. Geologic studies to date have been conducted in phases to allow adequate time to coordinate all on-site activities with appropriate interested parties and to assure minimum physical impact to the site itself. Phase One was a preliminary site visit conducted by two WES team members with assistance by two CENWW team members in October During Phase One, the WES team defined the boundaries of the study site, identified some potentially significant stratigraphic features for establishing the age of the landform, and recommended a phased approach to the study and coordination with team members from the two ARPApermit applicant groups. Phase Two studies were conducted between 12 and 18 December 1997, and are the principal subject of this report. The focus of Phase Two field investigations was a 350-m exposure of sediments along the south shoreline of Lake Wallula, beginning approximately 50 m east of the location where the skull of the ancient remains was found and extending westward to include a volcanic... Xlll....- WES FINAL REPORT - SEPTEMBER 1998 ash layer found during Phase One. The principal landform at this site is a terrace of the Columbia River, composed of fine-grained sediments that accumulated primarily in quiet water. This terrace may be correlated with terraces of early Holocene age at other locations along the Columbia River and described in published literature. The volcanic ash or tephra layer at the Kennewick site is Mazama ash. This material originated from the volcanic eruption of Mount Ma7_ma (now Crater Lake) identified by various authors to be at about 6,700 years before the present (yr B.P.). Because it occurs at many widespread locations throughout the Pacific Northwest, and because it is readily identifiable by its chemical signature and is of known age, this tephra is used as a time and stratigraphic marker in geologic and archaeologic studies in the western United States. Its presence as an in situ deposit near the terrace surface at the Kermewick site establishes that the landform associated with the ancient remains is more than 6,700 years old. Stratigraphic horizons were traceable over the length of the study site, establishing that with the datable materials that are present, one can interpret the relat
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