291012 | Apollo | Ancient Greek Literature

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291012
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  The Garden of PhoebusAuthor(s): Joseph FontenroseSource: The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 64, No. 3 (1943), pp. 278-285Published by: The Johns Hopkins University PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/291012 Accessed: 26/01/2009 22:04 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=jhup.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with thescholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform thatpromotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. The Johns Hopkins University Press  is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The American Journal of Philology. http://www.jstor.org  THE GARDEN OF PHOEBUS. In two recent articles I sought to show that the Latin poets of the first century B. C. did not consider Apollo a sun-god and that as yet the linking of Apollo with Helius was confined to special groups, such as the Stoics.1 But error dies hard; and I find it necessary to supplement those articles with a short discussion of a special problem. In his book The Gates of Dreams E. L. Highbarger has much to say about a garden of Phoebus at the eastern end of the world where the sun rises.2 It was the same as Elysium, the meadow of asphodel, the islands of the blessed, Mount Olympus, and heaven. It was on the Ocean Stream and was the counterpart of the garden of the Hesperides in the west. There Phoebus Apollo, as god of the sun, had his palace. There was the gate of the Sun or gate of Day whence the Sun's chariot issued to light the world. Furthermore this eastern gate, at the junction of earth, heaven, and the lower world, was Homer's ivory gate, the gate of false dreams. Highbarger finds the roots of this concept of a garden of Phoebus in Homer and Hesiod; but it becomes full- blown, he says, in writers of the sixth and fifth centuries, Stesichorus, Sophocles, and Euripides; and Virgil's Elysium (Aen., VI, 637-899) is the garden of Phoebus in its most complete imaginative development.3 The entire argument is complex and elaborate, and to support it Highbarger weaves together evidence from many sources. I am not concerned here with his theory of the gates of dreams but only with the garden of Phoebus, which, one gathers from his book, was a commonplace of the ancient imagination from the sixth to first centuries. If he is right, then Apollo was more commonly considered a sun-god in sixth and fifth century Greece than has recently been supposed, and there is little distinction in Virgil and his contemporaries between Apollo and Sol. For 1 Apollo and Sol in the Latin Poets of the First Century B. C., T. A. P. A., LXX (1939), pp. 439-55; Apollo and the Sun-God in Ovid, A. J. P., LXI (1940), pp. 429-44. 2 Ernest Leslie Highbarger, The Gates of Dreams (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1940). 3 Ibid., pp. 56-58, 99-107. 278  THE GARDEN OF PHOEBUS. Highbarger's Phoebus is Apollo and he is a sun-god.4 It is necessary, therefore, to look at all the evidence upon which Highbarger bases his concept of a garden of Phoebus. This, in fact, comes to no more than five passages: 1) Stesichorus, frag. 6 Diehl, ap. Athenaeus, XI, 38, p. 469 (Oxford Book of Greek Verse, 161): 'A'AcXos ' 'YTreptovt'8a 8ET'ras aKaTE/3alvev Xpvaeov Of)pa 8t' 'KEcavOLO 7repacoas afdLKOL' LepaS 7rTOT]r evOea WKTOS Epep/Evas 7roTt arTEpa KovpLo8av T' aXoxov 7ratias TIE 0iXovs 5 O 8' eS aXos Efpa SafvatLo KaTaCoKtov 7roOcOt ratLs Ats. These lines are quoted by Athenaeus to illustrate the cup that Helius uses as a boat on the Ocean Stream. They are obviously part of a longer poem. The 6 8e is about proof enough that the 7raLs Alo' of line 6 is not the Helius of line 1. But Highbarger identifies them, assuming that the son of Zeus is Apollo and that Apollo is the sun.5 If the son of Zeus is Apollo, and the 4Ibid., p. 57: . . . by the sixth century B.C., this Garden had become associated with Phoebus or Apollo, and was now thought to be located in the East, where the Sun rises. Ibid., p. 58: The 'Gate of the East' was vastly different. It was located in the region of bright day, where the Garden of Apollo was to be found. In my articles cited in note 1 supra I showed that the Latin poets used Phoebus as a name of Sol without thereby identifying him with Apollo; but the name Apollo and almost all other names and epithets of Apollo were never applied by them to the sun-god. 6 But he is not entirely clear about this. Such an identification seems implicit in his discussion on pp. 56 f. But on p. 53 he says, He tells us how Helios once sailed in his golden cup over Ocean to the depths of Night, there to join his mother, wife, and children; but Apollo withdrew to the deep shade of his sacred grove of laurel. Here 6 8e is interpreted correctly. See H. W. Smyth, A Greek Grammar for Colleges (New York, etc., American Book Co., 1920), ? 1112. In passing I might point out that Highbarger misinterprets the first four lines. He says that Helius once sailed in his cup and that he sailed to the depths of night. But the idea is the same as that found in Mimnermus, frag. 10 Diehl (Oxford Book of Greek Verse, 120): when Helius reaches his western goal he must get into his boat (which is sometimes represented as a cup) and be carried back, while he sleeps, to his eastern palace, so that he can start the new day. Again High- barger seems to vary in his interpretation; on the very next page (54), where he speaks of Mimnermus' poem, he seems to have the correct interpretation. 279  JOSEPH FONTENROSE. mention of a grove of laurel is a reason for supposing so, then we have a passage that is like several in Homer, where the rising or setting of Helius is fancifully expressed in a sentence of one or more verses to mark the time when the action of the following sentence took place.6 But it is more likely that C. M. Bowra is right in supposing that Heracles is meant and that Stesichorus tells how he reached the west by sailing in the sun's cup on the Ocean Stream.7 2) Sophocles, frag. 870 Nauck, ap. Strabo, VII, 3, 1, p. 295. It is desirable that I also quote Strabo's surrounding text; he is discussing Germany: sLa 8 rTv ayvotavr TwV rOTwoV rTOVT ol raT 'PTrata opr, Kal rovs 'YrepflopetovU {jvOorotovvreg Xoyov y&Cwvrat . . . EKElVOLt fv ovv eaoGCw- aav' ov8E yap Ct Ttva Yo4OKAXVj rpay8fct 7TepL v7) '&pEavtOvw XEyWV F LavapTrayetca vro Bopeov KOfeOlrft'E V7rep Te 7roVTOV 7rraV' 7r' XaraT X00 VOs VVKTO' T'E wr]yag ovpavov T ava7rrvXas Dotfiov TE 7raXatv K?Trov, oiv v E atq 7urpos Ta vvv, AX' EaTEov . This is the only passage cited by Highbarger in which such a phrase as QOtqov KiuroS occurs. But, if the three verses are read by themselves, they appear to prove his concept. They mention the ends of the earth, the springs of night, the regions where the canopy of the sky, so to speak, unfolds; and here is the garden of Phoebus, who to Sophocles must be Apollo. The context of this quotation in Strabo's Geography shows, however, that the euXara xOovo' are the land of the Hyperboreans and that Sophocles is telling the story of how Boreas carried off Oreithyia. The ancients almost unanimously placed the Hyper- boreans in the farthest north, interpreting their name as dwellers beyond the north wind. 8 It is true that this ety- mology is disputed by Farnell and others.9 But, whatever the See II., II, 48-51, VII, 421-23; VIII, 1-3; XI, 1-4; Od., II, 388 f.; III, 1-5. 7C. M. Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1936), pp. 86-88. 8 See Pindar, 01., 3, 31; Callimachus, Hymn 4, 281 f.; Diodorus Siculus, II, 47, 1; Pausanias, V, 7, 7. L. R. Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, IV (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907), pp. 99-111; 0. Crusius, s.v. Hyperboreer, Myth. Lex., 280
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