Shuttlecock
A
shuttlecock
 (also called a
bird
 or
birdie
) is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton. It hasan open conical shape formed by feathers (or a synthetic alternative) embedded into a rounded cork (orrubber) base. The shuttlecock's shape makes it extremely aerodynamically stable. Regardless of initialorientation, it will turn to fly cork first, and remain in the cork-first orientation.
NameSpecificationsConstruction and materials
Feather or Synthetic Shuttlecocks
See alsoReferences
The name 'shuttlecock' srcinates in Victorian times, when badminton first became popular. It is frequently shortened to
shuttle
. The"shuttle" part of the name was probably derived from its back-and-forth motion during the game, resembling the shuttle of a loom,while the "cock" part of the name was probably derived from the resemblance of the feathers to those on a rooster. A shuttlecock weighs around 4.75 to 5.50 g (0.168 to 0.194 oz). It has 16 feathers with each feather 70 mm (2.8 in) in length. Thediameter of the cork is 25 to 28 mm (0.98 to 1.10 in) and the diameter of the circle that the feathers make is around 54 mm (2.1 in).A shuttlecock is formed from 16 or so overlapping feathers, usually goose or duck, embedded into a rounded cork base. The cork is covered with thin leather.
[1]
 To ensure satisfactory flight properties, it is considered preferable to use feathers from right or left wingsonly in each shuttlecock, and not mix feathers from different wings, as the feathers from different wings are shaped differently.
[2][3]
The feathers are brittle; shuttlecocks break easily and often need to be replaced several times during a game. For this reason,synthetic shuttlecocks have been developed that replace the feathers with a plastic skirt. Players often refer to synthetic shuttlecocksas
 plastics
 and feathered shuttlecocks as
feathers
.Feather shuttles need to be properly humidified for at least 4 hours prior to play in order to fly the correct distance at the proper speedand to last longer. Properly humidified feathers flex during play, enhancing the shuttle's speed change and durability. Dry feathers arebrittle and break easily, causing the shuttle to wobble. Saturated feathers are 'mushy', making the feather cone narrow too much whenstrongly hit, which causes the shuttle to fly overly far and fast. Humidification boxes are often used, but a simple moist spongeinserted in the feather end of the closed shuttle tube will work nicely. Water should never touch the cork of the shuttle. Shuttles aretested prior to play to make sure they fly true and at the proper speed, and cover the proper distance. Different weights of shuttles are
PlasticshuttlecockFeathershuttlecock
ContentsNameSpecif icationsConstruction and materials
Feather or Synthetic Shuttlecocks
 
used to compensate for local atmospheric conditions. Both humidity and height above sea level affect shuttle flight. World BadmintonFederation Rules say the shuttle should reach the far doubles service line plus or minus half the width of the tram. According tomanufacturers (!) proper shuttle will generally travel from the back line of the court to just short of the long doubles service line onthe opposite side of the net, with a full underhand hit from an average player.
[4]
The cost of good quality feathers is similar to that of good quality plastics, but plastics are far more durable, typically lasting manymatches without any impairment to their flight. Shuttles are easily damaged and should be replaced every three or four games, andsooner if they are damaged and do not fly straight. This interferes with the game, as the impairment on the flight of the shuttle maymisdirect the direction of the shuttlecock.Most experienced and skillful players greatly prefer feathers, and serious tournaments or leagues are always played using feathershuttlecocks of the highest quality.
[5]
 Experienced players generally prefer the "feel" of feathered shuttlecocks and assert that they areable to control the flight of feathers better than that of plastics. In Asia, where feather shuttlecocks are more affordable than in Europeand North America, plastic shuttlecocks are hardly used at all.The playing characteristics of plastics and feathers are substantially different. Plastics fly more slowly on initial impact, but slowdown less towards the end of their flight. While feathers tend to drop straight down on a clear shot, plastics never quite return to astraight drop, falling more on a diagonal. Feather shuttles may come off the strings at speeds in excess of 320 km/h (200 mph) butslow down faster as they drop. For this reason, the feather shuttle makes the game seem faster, but also allows more time to playstrokes. Because feather shuttles fly more quickly off the racquet face they also tend to cause less shoulder impact and injury. Shuttlegame is a physically rigorous game needing to run, bend quickly and played indoor as either a singles or as doubles game.
Jianzi: a traditional Asian game in which players aim to keep a heavily weighted shuttlecock (Jian) from touching thegroundBattledore and shuttlecock: an ancient game similar to that of modern badminton.1. "Making Birdies: How Shuttlecocks Are Made"(http://www.officialbadminton.com/making_birdies.php).
Official Badminton
. Official Badminton. Retrieved 24 February 2015.2. "Yonex Shuttle News"(http://www.yonex.ch/fileadmin/files/images/badminton_produkte/ShuttleNews_WebVersion_separation_2012.pdf)(PDF).
http://www.yonex.ch/ 
. Yonex. Retrieved July 14, 2017. External link in
|website=
 (help)3. Kiley, Brendan (July 24, 2013). "The Rise of the Shuttlecock"(http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/the-rise-of-the-shuttlecock/Content?oid=17330068). The Stranger. Retrieved August 13, 2016.4. Adapted from various Shuttlecock Manufacturer's recommendations - RSL, Yonex, Carleton, among others by J.Wigglesworth. May 20155. "BWF's tournament sanctioned shuttlecocks"(http://www.bwfbadminton.org/page.aspx?id=14913). Badminton WorldFederation site. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
5. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/shuttlecock - shuttlecock: badminton equipment consisting of a ball of cork or rubber with acrown of feathers.
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See alsoReferences
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