Water Aid Zambia strategy (editing and project managing only)

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Making rights a reality Zambia programme strategy 2016-2021 We are WaterAid Our vision is a world where everyone, everywhere has safe water, sanitation and hygiene.…
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Making rights a reality Zambia programme strategy 2016-2021 We are WaterAid Our vision is a world where everyone, everywhere has safe water, sanitation and hygiene. Our mission is to transform the lives of the poorest and most marginalised people by improving access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. Our values define our culture and unite us across the many countries in which we work. They are at the very heart of WaterAid – who we are, what we do and how we do it – respect, accountability, courage, collaboration, innovation, integrity. WaterAid in Zambia After nearly 20 years of work, WaterAid Zambia plays, and will continue to play, a pivotal role in influencing the WASH sector in Zambia. We have gained a lot of credibility in complementing government service delivery and improving people’s access to water and sanitation services, in addition to being well known for our pioneering work on equity and inclusion. 2 Contents 4 Introduction 6 The WASH sector in Zambia 8 Our response 12 Our objectives 16 Our key shifts 18 Our approaches 20 Where we will work 20 Who we will work with 23 What success will look like 23 Adapting our organisation In Kanchele village Fiona Chimbabula and her family received help from WaterAid and Monze District Council to build a toilet in their home. 3 Introduction Zambia attained its independence from British colonial rule in 1964 and has enjoyed relative peace since then. However, poverty levels have remained high – 78% of the population live below the poverty line. National access to water coverage stands at 61%, while sanitation is at 48%. Coverage is lower for rural areas, at 57% for water and 43% for sanitation, than for urban areas, 83.5% and 61.5% respectively. Rapid urbanisation has created peri-urban areas, where 50-60% of the urban poor population reside. This has led to unplanned settlement patterns and a high water-related disease burden. Stunted growth affects 40% of Zambian children, while 28% of under-fives die from diseases caused by dirty water and poor sanitation. The socio-economic outlook for Zambia is characterised by widening inequalities brought about by many factors, from limited financing to inefficient implementation of policies. Zambia has had a stable political environment for the last 50 years, but despite this, there are political challenges. In its current form, the constitution does not guarantee people’s rights to access basic social services, such as water, sanitation and hygiene. Over the years, Zambia has been able to increase access to water and sanitation, but failed to reach set targets, including the Millennium Development Goals. This country programme strategy for WaterAid Zambia, running from 2016 to 2021, is timed to coincide with the new global targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and is also aligned with WaterAid’s Global Strategy (2015-2020), Everyone, Everywhere 2030. In this strategy we are rethinking the way that WaterAid Zambia works. Recognising our limitations in service delivery as a non-governmental organisation, we have made the deliberate choice to move from service delivery as an end product, to modelling water, sanitation and hygiene technologies and approaches that can be replicated and scaled up by government and other stakeholders. 4 Before WaterAid helped install a borehole in Chibawe village, 10-year- old Emeldah made a 3km trip to collect dirty water four times a day. 5 The WASH sector in Zambia The Zambian government recognises that water, 6. P rioritisation of hygiene, from policy to sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are critical to practice: Although hygiene is mentioned in human development, as enshrined in national various policy documents, its implementation strategies and development plans such as Vision remains low, partly because hygiene is primarily 2030 and the revised Sixth National Development seen as a personal responsibility rather than a Plan 2013–2016. An analysis of the WASH sector public health issue. in Zambia reveals the following ten issues. 7. I ntegration of WASH with other sectors: 1. Sector leadership: The sector has suffered Institutional fragmentation of the WASH from a long leadership vacuum, largely due sector, weak cross-sector collaboration and to non-strategic alignment of ministries, poor national planning, implementation and inadequate human resource capacity, poor monitoring all contribute to blocking enhanced convening capabilities or authority, and access to WASH for communities. competing priorities. 8. I nnovations uptake and scaling up: Research 2. Sector coordination: There is very weak sector and development in technology, especially coordination, which results in duplication of the development aspect and popularisation of effort and wasted resources. technologies, has remained very weak, leading to poor uptake and scaling up. 3. Sector financing: Historically, despite water and sanitation being ranked by government 9. E nvironmental degradation: Water amongst sectors having a direct impact on contamination (surface and ground), air livelihoods and the economy, WASH has pollution and soil degradation are priority continued to receive low funding allocations. concerns for the country. eak institutional capacity at district 4. W 10. High poverty levels: Although it is obvious and sub-district levels to deliver on that poverty levels have an impact on all WASH: This includes poor infrastructure, aspects of human life, the link between high inadequate equipment, under-staffing, weak poverty levels and access to WASH services implementation of strategies, insufficient is often overlooked. access to information, and the slow pace of decentralisation. 5. E ngagement of citizens to claim their rights: Limited citizen engagement restricts people’s ability to claim their rights and hold duty bearers accountable. 6 Merina Mweemba shows the colour of the water that was shared by the community of Habanji and their livestock until a new borehole was dug. 7 Our response Our role WaterAid Zambia has played, and will continue to play, a pivotal role in influencing the WASH sector in Zambia. We have gained a lot of credibility in complementing government service delivery and improving people’s access to WASH services. Over the years, WaterAid Zambia has been known as a capacity builder of partners, including local authorities, in the areas of financing, planning, monitoring and reporting on WASH services. We are also well known for pioneering work on equity and inclusion in WASH, and have piloted initiatives such as self-supply and manual drilling methodologies with great success. Over the next five years, we will build on this credibility to leverage our work and to position WaterAid Zambia as ‘a leading organisation influencing and facilitating transformational change for enhanced access to WASH services in Zambia.’ This will be accomplished through two distinct niches. i. ‘ To be known as a key influencer in the WASH sector’ – We will focus more attention on public engagement and campaigning by mobilising supporters, particularly young people, to trigger debates and draw attention to and transform the WASH agenda, to achieve greater responsiveness from duty bearers. ii. ‘To be known as innovators and custodians of modelling services’ – We will move away from using service delivery as an end in itself, to a situation where we can partner with others to innovate and model WASH technologies and approaches for replication and scaling up of sustainable WASH services by relevant stakeholders. To play the above roles and address the blockages identified, WaterAid Zambia has agreed on a transformational change goal that will see our country programme contribute to ‘increased access to quality and sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene services, particularly for excluded groups, through a well-coordinated and effective WASH sector that fulfils the rights of citizens’ over the next five years of the strategy. 8 Jennifer Kunda lost a baby several years ago due to lifting heavy objects, such as water cans. She and her four children now have piped water at home. 9 Five villages in Milenge district have benefited from iron removal plants being installed at boreholes, to improve the quality of their water. 10 Our theory of change Our theory of change is based on the strong belief that access to water, sanitation and hygiene services for all is vital. This significantly contributes to improved quality of life and the productive capacities of citizens, and can therefore contribute to the development and growth of the country. To achieve this, however, requires a systematic response and long- term commitment to address the key blockages to WASH access. It also requires working with multiple partners and stakeholders. More importantly, it requires the active urgency of people excluded from accessing WASH to take a lead in making this happen. We therefore believe that the transformative changes we seek will happen when communities are empowered to demand accountability and rights to WASH services. Other pre-requisites for this change to happen are that the government needs to be transparent and responsive to citizens’ demands; policies, legal and institutional frameworks must be revised; and sustainable WASH models must be adopted by the government and other stakeholders. Finally, we believe that change will happen when the capacities of duty bearers and stakeholders are enhanced, when the sector is well coordinated and when there is effective integration with other sectors, which will greatly reduce duplication and fragmentation of efforts and ensure resources are optimally utilised. Empowered citizens Adequate Clear policies, capacities legal and and sufficient institutional resources Enabling frameworks environment Coordinated Transparent and integrated and responsive sector government 11 Our objectives To achieve this strategy’s goal, WaterAid Zambia E nhance community voices, not only on WASH, has committed to four key change promises but on other basic social services. A key pillar of (objectives) that will be pursued over the next this objective will focus on enhancing equity and five years. inclusion in WASH service delivery. Key change promise 1: aximise the use of social media and other M platforms to reach out to and mobilise more Empower communities to demand young people. We will work with existing youth accountability and claim their rights to groups and networks, and nurture new groups, equitable, inclusive and sustainable WASH particularly in outlying districts. services by 2021 obilise communities, build their capacity to M Key change promise 2: demand accountability and claim their rights, Support the strengthening of WASH sector and support the creation of platforms for rights institutional and legal frameworks and holders to engage with duty bearers. capacities to deliver quality WASH services for all by 2021 E mpower communities to use tools to track service delivery and ensure services are ork with others to influence government to W inclusive and gender responsive. review, adopt and implement policies that have been developed, but not implemented. WaterAid romote active participation of citizens at P will partner with other advocacy institutions that all levels by developing a supporter base for have been successful in pushing for policy and WaterAid Zambia campaign work. legislative changes in other sectors. ddress challenges that hinder citizen A odel technologies and approaches, and use M participation, such as a lack of information and evidence from these to influence government low literacy levels, by pushing for the creation of and other stakeholders to adopt them for platforms for citizen engagement with key duty enhanced WASH coverage. bearers and incorporating literacy programmes, such as ‘Reflect’, in capacity building initiatives F ocus on supporting capacity development at the for communities. local level and influencing government to ensure that support is provided to local-level structures, E mpower communities to advocate for including in communities, for institutionalised and the domestication of relevant instruments sustainable capacity building. that provide basic rights and monitor their implementation, including the implementation upport capacity building of young people, S of national plans on WASH, Goal 6 of the SDGs internships and apprenticeships with and other related SDG goals. commercial utilities and other private-sector service providers to strengthen the human resources of the WASH sector. 12 Isaac Kunda attends to a new toilet block at Chikonde Bus Stop. He says the facilities give travellers a more dignified and safer option than open defecation. 13 Alice Namonje is a teacher and coordinator for menstrual hygiene management at Lubunda Primary School, helping girls prepare for puberty. 14 Key change promise 3: Support the integrated planning and implementation of WASH across sectors for equitable and inclusive WASH services for all by 2021 ork with others to improve the way planning is undertaken and W to push for integrated planning, particularly in the annual national budgeting process, as well as equitable distribution of resources to key social sectors and geographic locations, such as remote rural areas where access to basic social services remains a challenge. ndertake thorough and compelling research based on the U experiences of communities to inform our advocacy work on resource distribution and utilisation, working with non-traditional partners who have more experience in public-sector financing work. ush for the country to adopt a comprehensive national resource P allocation framework that will not only ensure equity in distribution of resources, but also contribute to the delivery of inclusive WASH services. J oin with other organisations and coalitions working on tax justice to push for a more robust tax system to ensure effective revenue collection and equitable distribution of these revenues. We will work to demonstrate the explicit link between tax revenues and the public services they pay for, such as WASH, education and health. F oster links with other sectors to support work in areas such as nutrition, maternal and child health, education, social protection, climate change adaptation programmes and livelihoods, as these have a direct impact on WASH and access to WASH. Key change promise 4: Raise the profile of hygiene as a public health priority, to trigger the adoption of behavioural change as a social norm by 2021 ork with others to improve and sustain hygiene behaviour W change, including researching and challenging cultural practices that undermine the adoption of hygiene behaviour change in communities. To address this we will work at national level to ensure that hygiene is recognised as a public health priority, with reasonable investment in areas such as hygiene behaviour-change communication and legislative review, policy development and implementation. At community level we will model good hygiene behaviour-change communication. Mobilise and work with young people as agents of change. 15 Our key shifts Achieving the goal and objectives of this new strategy will require key shifts in the way WaterAid Zambia operates. The key shifts that will characterise our programme over the next five years are summarised below. 1. We will move from using service delivery as an end in itself to a means to model WASH technologies and approaches for replication and scaling up. 2. We will move from a needs-based to a rights-based approach, to mobilise and organise communities to demand both their rights to WASH and accountability from duty bearers. 3. We will move from supporting ad-hoc structures (at district level) that are not legally recognised and backed by institutional framework at sub-district and community level, to a systemic approach based on the national decentralisation framework. We will also advocate for institutionalisation of community- based structures for sustainability purposes. 4. We will start focusing on public engagement, advocacy and campaigning by mobilising supporters, particularly young people, to draw attention to specific issues, such as hygiene, to trigger a response from duty bearers. 5. We will broaden and establish strategic partnerships to include non-traditional WASH partners. This is because we will also adopt a broader development approach, rather than exclusively focusing on WASH. 16 Community members helped construct Chobana Primary School’s new toilets because they said they understood the health benefits that came with having adequate sanitation. 17 Our approaches WaterAid Zambia has agreed three main programmes: 1. Modelling WASH service delivery alternatives aimed at demonstrating cost-effective, sustainable and participatory ways of delivering WASH services, particularly in communities with high levels of poverty, difficult terrain and generally poor sanitation and hygiene practices. 2. Public influencing and engagement aimed at empowering communities to demand their rights to WASH, and influencing government and other stakeholders to prioritise WASH and recognise it as a human right. 3. Hygiene matters aimed at raising the profile of hygiene as an important public health priority in policies, strategies and practices. We will also focus on the integration of hygiene into other sectors, using our Healthy Start campaign, which aims to improve the health and nutrition of newborn babies and children, as an entry point. Programmatic approaches We will employ a blend of core and impact-level approaches and service delivery models to implement the strategy. At strategic level, the main approaches that will be used are rights-based, district-wide and sector strengthening. Rights-based approach: We recognise that access to WASH in Zambia has been hindered by the fact that it is not recognised as a right. WaterAid Zambia will therefore focus on mobilising, organising and empowering communities to demand accountability from duty bearers and to claim their rights to WASH. District-wide approach: WaterAid Zambia will use the district-wide approach in implementing activities related to sector strengthening, coordination and integration. Sector strengthening: Through this approach, WaterAid Zambia will focus on strengthening policies/strategies, sector coordination, sector financing, institutional arrangements, performance and monitoring. 18 Midwife Mary Mwape took part in WaterAid’s Healthy Start campaign to raise awareness of the link between poor WASH facilities and neonatal deaths. 19 Where we will work Our goal is to contribute to reaching everyone everywhere; however, this does not mean that we will work in every district of the country. Based on the shifts we have made in the way we will deliver our programme, we have developed criteria to guide entry and exit from specific geographic locations. Over this strategy period, WaterAid Zambia will exit two districts that meet the exit criteria. This will be done in a phased manner, with phase-out of one district in the first two years of the strategy and the other in the last two years. We will develop programmes in two new districts – one rural and one urban, with the urban work predominantly implemented in peri-urban sites. Who we will work with We will continue to work in partnership to deliver our programme – nurturing relationships with others and exploring collaborations that add value to our work. In order to achieve meaningful impact with our influencing work, we will work with non-traditional partners, particularly coalitions and networks, in order to have a greater voice in national development discourse. We will also identify partners who can support our research, technological innovation and capacity building work, and media partners to enhance our communications. We will work with young people as agents of change, particularly in hygiene pro
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