INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION A CURRICULUM FOR SCHOOLS AND PROGRAMME OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION A CURRICULUM FOR SCHOOLS AND PROGRAMME OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT UNESCO Co-ordinator: Evgueni Khvilon Editorial co-ordinator: Mariana Patru Editors and
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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION A CURRICULUM FOR SCHOOLS AND PROGRAMME OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT UNESCO Co-ordinator: Evgueni Khvilon Editorial co-ordinator: Mariana Patru Editors and Contributors: Jonathan Anderson, Flinders University (Australia) Tom van Weert, Chair of IFIP Working Party (The Netherlands) IFIP Working Party: Yvonne Buettner (Switzerland) Charles Duchâteau (Belgium) Catherine Fulford (USA) Pieter Hogenbirk (The Netherlands) Mike Kendall (UK) Raymond Morel (Switzerland) Other Contributors: Siva Alagumalai (Singapore) Alexey Semenov (Russia) John Warren (Australia) Graphic design: Vladimir Kuznetsov (Russia) Cover design: Bertrand Ambry (UNESCO) Cover photo credit: Tatyana Khvilon, Institute of New Technologies (Russia) For further information, please contact: Mariana Patru Division of Higher Education UNESCO 7, place de Fontenoy Paris 07 SP, France. Phone: Fax: The authors are responsible for the choice and presentation of facts contained in this publication and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. The designations employed and the presentation of the material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Division of Higher Education UNESCO 2002 Printed in France FOREWORD Information and communication technology (ICT) has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering the basic skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core of education, alongside reading, writing and numeracy. One of UNESCO s overriding aims is to ensure that all countries, both developed and developing, have access to the best educational facilities necessary to prepare young people to play full roles in modern society and to contribute to a knowledge nation. Maintaining a capacity to advise national governments on the use of technology in schools and, in particular, on the optimal balance, given local circumstances, between ICT and older educational technologies and assisting countries in developing educational software and materials that reflect their own national and regional cultures are key components of the Organization s strategy to achieve the Education for All goals. The present publication, Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Curriculum for Schools and Programme of Teacher Development, is the last in a series of thematically complementary publications developed in 2002 by the Division of Higher Education and should be seen as UNESCO s contribution to assist Member States in successfully integrating the new technologies such as multimedia, e-learning and distance education delivery into their educational systems. The book pursues two key purposes. The first is to specify a curriculum in ICT for secondary schools that is in line with current international trends. The second is to propose a programme of professional development for teachers necessary to implement the specified ICT curriculum successfully. In addition, it provides a practical and realistic approach to curriculum and teacher development that can be implemented quickly and cost effectively, according to available resources. 3 ICT IN EDUCATION A CURRICULUM AND PROGRAMME OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT It gives me pleasure to acknowledge the genuine international co-operation spirit thanks to which this new publication has seen the light of day and the contribution of several internationally renowned experts from Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. A word of sincere thanks goes to the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) for having been the initiator of this project. John Daniel Assistant Director-General for Education 4 CONTENTS I. ICT AND EDUCATION 8 Aims and Purposes 8 Information and Communication Technology 9 Curriculum and Teacher Development 10 Varying Conditions Across Countries 11 Terminology 12 II. MODELLING ICT DEVELOPMENT 14 A Continuum of Approaches 15 Stages of Teaching and Learning 16 A Curriculum Structure for Secondary Schools 18 Professional Development of Teachers 19 III. ICT DEVELOPMENT AT THE SCHOOL LEVEL 21 Approaches to ICT Development 21 Characteristics of Schools Related to ICT Development 23 A Matrix for ICT Development in Schools 26 Emerging approach 26 Applying approach 30 Infusing approach 32 Transforming approach 34 IV. ICT CURRICULUM FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS 37 ICT Literacy 37 Application of ICT in Subject Areas 38 Infusing ICT across the Curriculum 40 ICT Specialization 41 V. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS 43 ICT Development in Schools 43 Developing ICT Skills and Knowledge 45 Conducting professional development 45 Further points to consider 48 Applying ICT to Teachers' Subject Areas 49 5 ICT IN EDUCATION A CURRICULUM AND PROGRAMME OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Teacher competencies 49 Organizing teacher development 51 Further points to consider 52 Infusing ICT to Improve Learning 53 Teacher competencies 53 Organizing teacher development 55 Further points to consider 56 Supporting Infusion of ICT in Schools 56 Role requirements for support teachers in ICT 57 Organizing teacher development 59 VI. A BLUEPRINT FOR CURRICULUM AND TEACHER DEVELOPMENT 60 Modelling ICT Development 60 Tracking ICT Development in Schools 61 A Blueprint for Curriculum 61 A Blueprint for Teacher Development 62 A Blueprint for Textbook Writers 62 GENERAL REFERENCES 63 APPENDICES 65 APPENDIX A ICT LITERACY 66 Unit A1 Basic Concepts of ICT 66 Unit A2 Using the Computer and Managing Files 69 Unit A3 Word Processing 71 Unit A4 Working with a Spreadsheet 73 Unit A5 Working with a Database 74 Unit A6 Composing Graphical (Re)presentations 76 Unit A7 Computers and Communication 78 Unit A8 Social and Ethical Issues 80 Unit A9 Jobs and/with ICT 82 APPENDIX B APPLICATION OF ICT IN SUBJECT AREAS 84 Unit S1 ICT in Languages 85 Unit S2 ICT in Natural Sciences 86 Unit S3 ICT in Mathematics 88 Unit S4 ICT in Social Sciences 90 Unit S5 ICT in Art 91 Unit B1 Measurement 93 Unit B2 Modelling and Simulation 95 6 CONTENTS Unit B3 Robots and Feedback Devices 97 Unit B4 Statistics 99 Unit B5 Creating Graphics 101 Unit B6 Music 102 Unit E1 Spreadsheet Design 104 Unit E2 Database Design 106 APPENDIX C INFUSING ICT ACROSS THE CURRICULUM 108 Unit C1 Encouragement to Reading 110 Unit C2 Are We Becoming Genetically Modified? 112 Unit C3 Antarctica Unit C4 Multimedia and Languages 114 Unit C5 The Parking Garage Problem 115 Unit C6 The 1920s and its Excesses 116 Unit C7 Le Village Prologue 117 Unit C8 Society s Problems 118 APPENDIX D ICT SPECIALIZATION 120 Specialization Preparation Module 121 Unit SP1 Introduction to Programming 121 Unit SP2 Top-Down Program Design 125 General Specialization Module 128 Unit GS1 Foundations of Programming and Software Development 129 Unit GS2 Advanced Elements of Programming 133 Vocational Specialization Module 137 Unit VS1 Business Information Systems 138 Unit VS2 Process Control Systems 142 Unit VS3 Project Management 145 7 I. ICT AND EDUCATION Information and communication technology (ICT) has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding ICT and mastering the basic skills and concepts of ICT as part of the core of education, alongside reading, writing and numeracy. This book deals with ICT in secondary schools, and with the changing competencies required of both students and teachers if they are to function effectively in today's society. It specifies an ICT curriculum for secondary schools, and outlines an accompanying programme of teacher development to implement such a curriculum. AIMS AND PURPOSES UNESCO aims to ensure that all countries, both developed and developing, have access to the best educational facilities necessary to prepare young people to play full roles in modern society and to contribute to a knowledge nation. Because of the fundamental importance of ICT in the task of schools today, UNESCO has previously published books in this area as a practical means of helping Member States: for example, Informatics for Secondary Education: A Curriculum for Schools (1994) and Informatics for Primary Education (2000). Rapid developments in ICT now demand a completely new document in place of the first of these publications. This book has two key purposes. The first is to specify a curriculum in ICT for secondary schools that is in line with current international trends. The second purpose is to outline a programme of professional development for teachers necessary to implement the specified ICT curriculum successfully. 8 ICT AND EDUCATION All governments aim to provide the most comprehensive education possible for their citizens within the constraints of available finance. Because of the pivotal position of ICT in modern societies, its introduction into secondary schools will be high on any political agenda. This book gives a practical and realistic approach to curriculum and teacher development that can be implemented quickly and cost effectively, according to available resources. The curriculum is designed to be capable of implementation throughout the world to all secondary age students. The programme of teacher professional development relates closely to the ICT curriculum, and particularly to the stage of development that schools have reached with respect to ICT. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ICT permeates the business environment, it underpins the success of modern corporations, and it provides governments with an efficient infrastructure. At the same time, ICT adds value to the processes of learning, and in the organization and management of learning institutions. The Internet is a driving force for much development and innovation in both developed and developing countries. Countries must be able to benefit from technological developments. To be able to do so, a cadre of professionals has to be educated with sound ICT backgrounds, independent of specific computer platforms or software environments. Technological developments lead to changes in work and changes in the organization of work, and required competencies are therefore changing. Gaining in importance are the following competencies: critical thinking, generalist (broad) competencies, ICT competencies enabling expert work, decision-making, handling of dynamic situations, working as a member of a team, and communicating effectively. 9 ICT IN EDUCATION A CURRICULUM AND PROGRAMME OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT A secondary ICT curriculum should contribute to the building up of teams of professionals with these new competencies. The use of ICT cuts across all aspects of economic and social life. Technological developments in ICT are very rapid. Technology quickly becomes obsolete requiring new skills and knowledge to be mastered frequently. Adaptation is only possible when based on a sound understanding of the principles and concepts of ICT. CURRICULUM AND TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Keeping pace with technological development and the changing competencies required of both students and their teachers requires a state-ofthe-art curriculum and appropriate teacher development. A state-of-the-art curriculum The ICT curriculum for schools presented in the chapters that follow is a state-of-the-art curriculum. This curriculum offers to schools and countries where ICT curricula are evolving the foundations from which to advance rapidly. It is not effective to repeat the development process with respect to ICT education that has already taken place elsewhere since to do so only slows down development and keeps institutions and countries from closing the gap. Most important is the need to integrate or infuse ICT meaningfully throughout all school subjects. Many opportunities arise from the inclusion of ICT: the ICT curriculum presented in this book attempts to facilitate fruitful use of these opportunities. A modular curriculum The curriculum has been designed in modular form so that education authorities can select appropriate elements to meet their objectives at the phase of development reached in their countries. Sufficient detailed description of each objective has been given so that textbook writers and educational publishers can produce course materials that meet local, cultural, and developmental circumstances. Alternatively, high quality learning materials from developed countries may be adapted to meet local circumstances. 10 ICT AND EDUCATION Professional development for teachers Teachers need to be adequately prepared to implement a state-of-the-art ICT curriculum. Indeed, introducing any new curriculum calls for careful preparation, management, resourcing, and continuing support. In the case of an ICT curriculum, even more concerns have to be considered. Educational research studies show that programmes of professional development for teachers are most effective if directed to the stage of ICT development reached by schools. The implications of these research findings are that teacher development is best conceived as an ongoing process, with many professional development activities conducted in schools. VARYING CONDITIONS ACROSS COUNTRIES Circumstances and resources vary markedly between countries, all of which will impact on the implementation of any new ICT curriculum and will affect how educational systems cope with change. Coping with change Rapid developments in ICT are difficult to manage for Ministries of Education, educational managers, and schools. A situation of constant change is also confronting to teaching staff and publishers. This ICT curriculum has been designed to help cope with these developments and situations of change. It helps Ministries of Education to develop a systematic and controlled secondary education ICT policy. It also helps schools to develop ICT systematically and effectively in their programmes, if need be from scratch. Local circumstances Circumstances vary between countries and between schools within a country, and implementation factors have therefore to be taken into account when designing ICT curricula. The ICT curriculum presented here offers to countries and schools a development framework that takes account of these variations between countries and schools. 11 ICT IN EDUCATION A CURRICULUM AND PROGRAMME OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Various curriculum realizations, each of which is strongly influenced by cultural, societal and institutional factors, can be constructed in a straight forward way from the ICT curriculum that is presented. Schools and countries will be able to construct an up-to-date curriculum from the curriculum framework provided in a process in which specific needs, restrictions with respect to resources, and other local circumstances are taken into account. The curriculum allows educational publishers and textbook writers to produce learning materials in the cultural traditions of their country. Availability of resources In any educational system, the level of available resources places a restriction on the degree to which any new subject can be introduced into the school curriculum, especially where only the most basic facilities have so far been provided. But ICT is of such importance to the future industrial and commercial health of a country that investment in the equipment, teacher education, and support services necessary for the effective delivery of an ICT-based curriculum should rank high in any set of government priorities. The curriculum proposed takes account of these resource issues and specifies minimum requirements for effective delivery in different circumstances. TERMINOLOGY To define information and communication technology (ICT), a term used in the title of this book and extensively throughout, two other terms need first to be defined. Informatics (Computing Science) UNESCO defines informatics as the science dealing with the design, realization, evaluation, use, and maintenance of information processing systems, including hardware, software, organizational and human aspects, and the industrial, commercial, governmental and political implications of these. 12 ICT AND EDUCATION Informatics technology Informatics technology is defined as the technological applications (artifacts) of informatics in society. Information and communication technology (ICT) Information and communication technology, or ICT, is defined as the combination of informatics technology with other, related technologies, specifically communication technology. In this book, these three definitions have been collapsed into a single, all encompassing, definition of ICT. This definition implies that ICT will be used, applied, and integrated in activities of working and learning on the basis of conceptual understanding and methods of informatics. 13 II. MODELLING ICT DEVELOPMENT In developing a curriculum for ICT, it is useful to have a model for ICT development. Such a model is not a miniature replica of some threedimensional object but rather a representation of the essential characteristics of ICT development to provide a scaffold or framework. Such a framework shows the interrelationship of various components within a system and aids understanding by educational administrators and policymakers. Two models are presented here to provide a framework for what follows. The first model conceives ICT development as a continuum along which an educational system or an individual school can pinpoint the approach that relates to the growth of ICT for their particular context. This model is referred to as a continuum of approaches to ICT development. The second model depicts different stages in the way that those who are most involved in the use of ICT in schools teachers and students discover, learn about, understand, and specialize in the use of ICT tools. This second model is referred to as stages of teaching and learning with and through ICT. The two models, a continuum of approaches to ICT development and stages of teaching and learning with and through ICT, together provide the framework for an ICT curriculum and for the professional development of teachers detailed in this book. 14 MODELLING ICT DEVELOPMENT A CONTINUUM OF APPROACHES Studies of ICT development in both developed and developing countries identify at least four broad approaches through which educational systems and individual schools proceed in their adoption and use of ICT. These four approaches, termed emerging, applying, infusing, and transforming, represent a continuum depicted as the model in Figure 2.1. Emerging Applying Infusing Transforming Figure 2.1. Model depicting a continuum of approaches to ICT development in schools The emerging approach Schools at the beginning stages of ICT development demonstrate the emerging approach. Such schools begin to purchase, or have had donated, some computing equipment and software. In this initial phase, administrators and teachers are just starting to explore the possibilities and consequences of using ICT for school management and adding ICT to the curriculum. Schools at this emerging phase are still firmly grounded in traditional, teacher-centred practice. The curriculum reflects an increase in basic skills but there is an awareness of the uses of ICT. This curriculum assists movement to the next approach if so desired. The applying approach Those schools in which a new understanding of the contribution of ICT to learning has developed exemplify the applying approach. In this secondary phase, administrators and teachers use ICT for tasks already carried out in school management and in the curriculum. Teachers largely dominate the learning environment. Schools at the applying approach phase adapt the curriculum in order to increase
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