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AD SWEDISH DEFENCE RESEARCH ABSTRACTS 72/73-3, RFSEARCH INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL DEFENCE, STOCKHOLM Royal Aircraft Establishment Farnborough, England February DISTRIBUTED BY: National Technical Information Service U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield Va N1 2.- ~t3 'In i& SYVEL-%1SH DEFENCE RESEARCH. ~ TRA S 72/73-3 *.L4~-. C k.., *Naticn:1 OefiiL -, SL..k~uI1JI AN a1 fil UNLIMITE Translations in this series are available from: THE R.A.E. LIBRARY Q.4 BUILDING R.A.E. FARNBOROUGH HANTS New translations art. announced monthly in: LIST OF R.A.E. TECHNICAL REPORTS, TRANSLATIONS and BIBLIOGRAPHIES W~k SK 7iw~dlUtM 01 CXAINT1^10 32a V LT 3 Index to FRO 72/73-3 A Al PROTECTION - ATOMIC Consideration and appraisal of the threats from nuclear explosions, forecasts, summaries (199) Reversal auto-radiography: a method for the examination of small radioactive particles. (200) Seismological array stations and global seismicity. (201) Seismic identification using short period Hagfors data. (202' -'servations on blast explosions at Medio, USSR, (2Cj) Thi world's supply of uranium. (204) On the possibilities of a directly igniting fusion charge. A2 Characteristics of nuclear explosions (205) Crystal potentials and the band electrons of iridium. (206) Combined basis fun-tions method for energy band calculations. (207) A simplified method for collective excitations in realistic systems. (208) Lectures for FOA plutonium days, 3 and 4 May A3 Effects of nuclear explosions (209) Studies on plant accumulation of fission products under Swedish conditions. XIII Entry of 9 0 Sr and 13 7 Cs iuto the herbage of contrasting types of pasture. (210) Experiments on conventional excess voltage transient protection as a protection against an EMP transient. (211) Attendance at a Conference on 'Workshop on survival of food, crops -nd livestock in the event of nuclear war' held at USDA Training Centre, ForL Royal, Virginia, and followed by relevant visits in USA. (212) Transfer of simulated fall out particles from pasture to grazing dairy cattle. II Experiments with wet deposited and I 0-200wm particles. (213) Ignition of paper and cloth by short pulses of heat rediation. (214) The trangmission of neutrons in angled passages. A4 Protection against atomic warfare A5 (See Ref.214) Medical attendance (atomic injuries) (215) Reticuoendothelial system phagocytosis following quantified combined injuries. (216) Investigations into the sensitivity to radiation (LDSO/20) in a family of mice used by FOA I during the period February 1970 to July B PROTECTION - BIOLOGICAL B4 Indication and identificarion (217) Bacteria content in the air of different working environments. (218) Circulation by air of bacteria from an open public sewage plant. I I 4 LT 17: B5 Protection against biological warfare including studies of technical sys temas. (219) The medical risks in using glutaraldehyde as a means of biological decontamination, (220) Ground coverage and remnants of bacteria spores after spraying fruit trees. B6 Mpdical attendance (B-injuries) (221) Synthesis of l-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-(u-hydroxybenzyl) and 1-(2-diethyaminoethyl)-2( c-acetoxybenzy!) benzimidazole. C PROTECTION - CHEMICAL CI Considerations and appraisal of the threat of chemical warfare, forecasts, summaries (222) Considerations on a chemical arms control treaty and the concept of amplified verification. C2 Chemical warfare - characteristics and effects (223) Release uf low molecular weight substances from cholinergic vesicles resulting from phospholipase-a 2 -attack. (224) X-FOG - a help progrsm for 8-16 K TIROS-FOCAL. (225) Tritium marking of benzyl acid. C3 Dispersal and propagation (226) GASUT- a computer program for calculating gas flow from holders containing condensed gas. C4 Indication and analysis (227) Investigation of carbon monoxide warning devices for use in Civil Defence Establishments. See also abstract (224) C5 Protecti, against chemical warfare including studies of technical systems (228) The per.ettation of chemical warfare material through packing. D AMMUNITION AND WEAPON TECHNOLOGY DI Tec inology of explosives (229) Method for concentration of impurities in trotyl and amatol. (230) Digital data collection with A/D-transformer DEC AFOI, tape player AMPEX FR 1300 and computer PDP-8/I. (231) Determination of carboxyl content in carboxyl terminated polybutadines by means of IR spectrophotometry. D2 Gunnery technology and associated ballistics (232) The relation between external ballistic stability and dispersion of high explosive shells with standard aftcone and with an extension in the form of a rather incurved spherical truncatei cone known as a 'ducks tail'. D3 Rocket engine technology and associated bull:stics (233) Studies in solid state chemistry. II On the structures of some oxo- and hydroxo complexes of lead (LI). D4 The technology of war and effects on the combatants (234) The range of different types of fragments and maximum height of aecent. (235) Apparatus for the automatic recorded weighing of fragments. (236) Penetration of large calibre splinters of commercial iron. A study of parameters. (237) Photographs of fragments striking a steel cable using a strip film cinecamera. (238) The effect of shock waves and splinters on buildings - the present state of knowledge and need for information. D6 Protection against effects on the combatants (239) Determination of boron in boron carbide. (240) Ballistic test, determination of structure and properties of an alumirium oxide ceramic produced by the AB-IFO works. (241) Properties and structure of some ceramics used for, or adopted for, lightweight armour. D7 Medical attendance (splinter, blast and burn wounds) (242) Mortality rate iii quantified combined injuries. D8 System studies. (See abstract (270)) E El CONDUCT OF WAR, INFORMATION AND COMMAND Reconnaissance and location (243) Review of an amplifier tube for pictures at low light levels. (244) Recovery time after being dazzled, as a function of age. (245) Detectability of an unsharp edge in additive noisy background. = (246) The principles of colour systems. (247) Radiation of Hela cells by lie Ne-laser. (248) A versatile 60kV switching system for pulsed excitation of lasers. (249) Raman scatter laser radar detection based on a sampling technique. (250) A study of literature on methods to determine the effect on visibility of the atmospheric particle concentration, size and distribution. (251) The E region of the ionosphere at night time - a literature study. E2 Communications (252) Communication link with CO 2 laser. (253) Travelling ionospheric disturbances initiated by low altitude nuclear explosions. (254) Mounting thin film circuits on ferrite substrates. (255) Impedance matching of an open free radiatinp circular wave guide fur usc as an array antenna element. E3 Fire control (See abstracts 243, 24?, 248 and 249) E4 Guidarce, navigation and target characteristics (256) Description of the FOA electronic turntable for measuring gyro d~ift. (257) Description of electronics for the Gyroflex (Singer-Kearfo~t), E5 Computers (258) Doubly stochastic Poisson processes and process control. V --- Ale 6 LT 1731 (259) A program for listing card indices fcr A4 reports. (260) flexible table printing sub routines in FOR '4AN. E6 Counter measures (261) Changes in mass of biological cells when irradiated with Q-pulsed ruby laser. (262) Skidproof dyes for concrote and asphalt. E8 Reviews and threat scenarios (263) Microfiches as a medium for information. (2b4) inaccuracy in meast, ements at,. (265) The seventh URPI Congress in Warsaw F F3 VEHICLES AND SPACECRAFT Aircaft (266) D~rerminarion of chrome in copper alloys. (267) Determination of uranium in iron-uranium alloys. F5 Missiles and torpedoes (268) Examination of an object from space. F8 Reviews ani. threat scenarios (269) Ground effect devices for the transport of personnel and goods over short distances using air suspension. (270) Inforwation on attack helicopters - a comparison. G U1 RELIABILITY AND LOGISTIC TECHNOLOGY St re maintenance technology (271) Innibitors against tank corrosion. G2 Reliability and inspection techniques ( (272) A relaxoaeter for polymer matcrial. (273) A look at the future of electronic-components. G3 Stra &e k274) Electrochemical testing of deposit corrosion and pitting on mild steel in inhibited salt solutions. (275) Fifth International Congress on metal corrosion, Tokyo, H H3 RUMAY. FACTORS The closed room environment (276) Methods of cleaning and servicing air supplies and their control. (277) Expei.ments with a catalytic cleaner for cal engine exhaust gases. (278) The chemical engineer and environmental conservation. (279) Chemical reaction engineering. 14 Provision of water rand food (280) Water purification - a new technique. T H5 Performance, ability and behaviour of the individual and the group (281) Laser cane for the blind. H6 Health and medical attendance, field hygiene (282) Studies on risks of catastrophe in the ha idling of chlorine. I. Railway accidents. (283) Late microvascular changes after slow and rapid thawing of frozen tissues. (284) The influence uf cold, stress on catecholamine excretion and oxygen uptake of normal persons. (285) Electrometric cholinesterase methodology in the monitoring of biocide workers. (,d6) Damped rags as a protection against breathing chlorine. (287/ insect repellents. Field trials. Description for FOA-Infcrmation Day 13/12/72. (288) Tests on a 'Flying lisect Exterminator'. (289) Studies on midge repellents. 6th Nordic Symposium on parasitology at Rungsted, Denmark, December M ASSOCIATED STUDIES AND THEIR SOLUTIONS (290) About the intentions behind the Swedish planning system. Ml The defence opezational analysis organization (291) LYSTER - Air defence surface protection capability in Swedish terrain. M3 Predictive planning (292) Terms of reference for compulsory military service. (293) SOM - An education simulation welhud. (294) Duration of progrom for program optimization. (295) LECO - a compacting and editing program. (296) Fourteen hypotheses on planning and organization. (297) Introduction to LECO. (298) FL 360 compiler with Macros. (299) Introduction to the structure of dialogue directed computer programs. (300) Research group for planning theory (FDA/KTH) report PT , Mathematical models for some problems in water conservation'. M4 System and program planning (301) A fast computer method for matrix transposition. (302) Modified linear multi-step methods for a class of stiff ordinary differential equations. (303) On the practical applications of majorants for non-linear matrix iterations. (304) Nord data 72 at Helsinki, June (305) FORTRAN dialects - a selection. (306' Computer treatment of climatic reacarch data: Tablc typc A. (30?) Computer treatment of climatic renearch data: Table type B. M5 Forecasts (308) Communication system analysis ai.j sudies of the future. 3j: 8 LT 1' (309) The relations between science and technology and their implications for policy formation. (310) Communication, system analysis and studies of the future. (311) Remarks on the use of citation data in predictive models of scientific activity. (312) Future scientific research - the elites new latin or a new name for some old ways of thinking. M6 Remaining investigations and comparisons (31j) Constant flow speed or constant variation coefficient - an investiastion of some properties of the cell cycle. (314) A classiflcttion system for gramaphone records and sound tapes together with printed music on ADP routines according to CORSAIR S program system. (315) Coopers.iLn betwt-en FOA index and Swedish Radio's musical department. M7 Consideration aij surveillance of scientific research outside FGA (316) Gerhard Herzberg - Nobel prize winner for Chemistry (317) ABC1 molecular spectra. (318) East Asia in perspective. (319) ' presentation of the activities of FOA Index. (320) On -!... form of spectra or radar echoes from precipitation. (321) FOA Index adaptation of ILO's infortation system TSIS for operating in the computqr centre, Stockholm, in cooperation with the State Office. (322) On the possibilities of using a laser in transmission equipment for sighttng measurements. j'mtk MiLLYARY INS11TUT. OF SYC io1jqw (323) Firing by an artillery battaijon - simulation of system with special reference to ergonomic quest ons. TrE EMERGENCY COUNCIL FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFENCE (324) Students and defence. An investigation of opinions among students at Uppsala, Spring I -.. ii-, : L 9 A PigOECTION - ATOMIC AI Consideration and appraisal of the threats from nuclear explosions. Forecasts, summaries. (199) FOA4 report B4063-AI Reversal auto-radiography: a method for the examination of small radioactive particles. (In Fnglish) J. Sisefsky February 1973 Extract from J. Phys. E. Sci. Instrum., Vol.6, pp.74-76, 1973 FOA reprint 1972/73:24. By means of this radio-autographic method a transparent preparation of both radioactive and inactive particles can be transformed into dislinct circular zones against a surrounding, coloured, transparent background. As a result, they can be identified and studied without disturbing them, by their auto-radiographic signatures. The strength of each particle's individual activity can be determined from the dimensions of the circular zone. The report amounts to a shortened version of FOA4 report C (FRO 69/70-3 item 186, RAE Translation LT 1509) and is in effect, an improvement of the essentially similar method described by Sippfnky, Br. J. Appl. Phys., (1959). (200) FOA4 report B4065-A1 Seismological array stations and global seismicity. 0. Dahlman Extract from Proc.Semin.Seismology Seismic Arrays. NTNF/NORSAR, Sept.30, 1972, pp ; FOA reprint i972/73:29 (In English) (201) FOA4 report B4066-AI Seismic identification using short period Hagfors data. (In English) H. laraelson Extract from Proc.Semin.Seismology Seismic Arrays, NTNF/NORSAR, Sept.30, 1972, pp FOA reprint :972/73:30 (202) FOA4 report C45.3-A Observations on blast explosions at Medeo, USSR, (Translation from Russian) January 1973 The report is a translation of an article in Nutjnys Stati i ZaMLtki (Scientific articles and information). The article reviews two different blasting operations with 1700 and 3600 tons explosive respectively, which were used in constructing a dam at Alma-Ata in tle USSR in The report describes how the explosives were positioned, the course of the explosion, the results and the seismic recordings, the latter in considcrable detail, 10 LT 173f (203) FOA4 report C4529-Al The world's supply of uranium B. Andersson February 1973 The report presents information on the presence of uranium in different countries, including deposits which are not at present an economical proposition. The information has been obtained from literature'and the international trade press available up to October (204) FOA4 report C4530-Al On the possibilities of a 'directly igniting' fusion charge. G. During Februaiv 1973 A 'directly igniting' fusion charge refers to a charge which is ignited by some non nuclear process. It has been calculated that to ignite a thermonuclear combustion in a mixture of equal parts deuterium and tritium, it requires between 104 and 109 J supply of energy, depending on the density of the fusion materials. The higher value corresponds to the density at a nearly completely frozen state of the mixture, the lower to a compression 104 times that density. None of the many methods of initiation discussed seemed likely to be realized from present day development. The two methods considered nearest to realization consisted of irradiating the fusion material with intensive, high energy electron beams or by compression by irradiation with a laser. With the former 7-8 method it is reckoned chat a current of 10 A of 100keV-electrons for 10 seconds would initiate a mixture of deuterium and tritium in a nearly completely frozen state, that is, with 10 4 J supply of energy. With the latter method the calculations indicate that the same amount of energy could compress the material 10 4 times. Both methods are based on assumptions which have not been verified by experiment. As an attempt to forecast the future, laboratory initiation of thermo nuclear combustion will probably be achieved during the next decade and a guess for achieving direct military ignition of fusion charges would probably be during the 1980s. A2 Characterigtics of nuclear explosions (205) FOA4 report B4060-A2 Crystal potentials and the band electrons of iridium. (In English) G. Arbman and S. Hbrnfelt Extract from J. Phys. F: Metal Phys., Vol.2, pp , 1972 FOA reprint 1972/73:18 Energy band calculations have been made for metallic iridium by the relativistic APW method. A number of electron potentials have been examined and variations in the band and Fermi surface for the different potential propositions hav., been studied. It has proved useful to analyse the variations by ,TII 738 a method based on perturbation theory. The authors have found that both the band and the Fermi surface are noticeably more sensitive in relation to variation in terms of exchange and correlation than with respect to other uncertainties in the potential theories. This sensitivity is also shown to depend on an unexpectedly strong localization of '5d-electrons' at the Fermi energy. (206) FOA4 report B4061-A2 Combined basis function method for energy band calculations. (In English) G. Arbman and D. Koelling Extract from Phys. Scripta, Vol.5, pp , 1972 FOA reprint 1972/73:19 A method is given for calculating relativistic energy bands and wave functions, in which rapid converging sets of base functions are generated from linear-combined RAPW functions. By constructing a second set of base functions one can study the band structure of complex materials (e.g. groups of alloys) with a matrix of reasonable size. The result of an application to surface centre4 praseodymium show the usefulness of the method and possibilities of potential devlopment. (207) FOA4 report B A simplified method for collective excitations in realistic systems. (In English) B. Johausson and G. Arbman Extract from J. Phys. (Paris), Vol.33, pp.c3-95, 1972 FOA reprint 1972/73:20 A method has been developed for calculating collective excitation energies such as plasmon, in realistic multi-fermion systems. In order to test the vethod the authors carried out calculations on the electron gas with proportionately good results. (208) FOA4 report C4524-A2 Lectures for FOA plutonium daye, 3 and 4 May, January 1973 The report consists of a written version of the addresses delivered at two 'plutonium days' arranged by FOAs institution for material research on 3 and 4 Hay, A3 Effects of nuclear explosions (209) FOA4 report C4525-A3 Studies on plant accumalaion of fission products under Swedish conditions. XIII entry of 9 0 Sr and I /Cs, into the herbage nf contrasting types of pasture. (In English) E. fask and others. January 1973 V 12 LT 1731 The uptake by pasture vegetation of 90Sr and 137Cs from simulated single deposits has been studied over a six year period of long term trials arranged at two different places. The one trial ground consisted of natural pasture on moist sand and the other of cultivated p %sture on clay. Both sites had been used for experiments with manures eleven vya.'s earlier. The distribution ol nuclides in Lhe ground profile was studied after the end of the trial period. AL the first opportunity for harve.ting during the year of contamination uptake of 90Sr by tht pasture vegetation was higher than the uptake of 137Cs. Subsequently it dropped more quickly during that year, for 137Cs than for 90Sr. then dropped further from year to year for both 90Sr and 137Cs. 2:ie average contents of 90Sr per g Ca was about four times higher on the natural pasture vegetation thar. on cultivated pasture during all tne six years of the tests, whilst corresponding average contents o
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