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COUNT DOWN TO 2015: IS UGANDA ON TRACK? ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS TO ATTAINMENT OF EFA GOALS IN UGANDA FINAL REPORT CLIENT: UGANDA NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR UNESCO 2 ND Floor Embassy House, King George VI Way, P. O. Box 4962, Kampala-UGANDA Consultant Dr. Joseph C. Oonyu, P.O. Box 16295, Kampala Tel/Fax : / / June 29, 2012 i P age TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Title page ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables iv List of Figures v Acronyms vi Executive Summary viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Interventions for achieving EFA goals Problem statement Purpose Specific objectives Report structure CHAPTER 2: DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES 2.1 Assessment design Sampling Methods and tools of data collection Data analysis Data quality and integrity CHAPTER 3: MAJOR STUDY FINDINGS 3.1 Introduction Key findings and interpretation Level of achievement of EFA goals and challenges Priorities and promising strategies to overcome obstacles and accelerate progress towards achieving EFA goals Proposals for policy orientation and actions to address challenges Lesson from the current level of intervention to achieve EFA goals by ii Page CHAPTER 4: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1 Summary Conclusion Recommendations References APPENDICES 5.1 Terms of reference Programme for assessment Tools for data collection iii Page LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Targeted respondents in the various strata or categories.. 6 Table 2 Access indicators for early childhood education in Uganda.. 11 Table 3 Trends in gross enrolment of primary school children Table 4: Trends in access indicators for primary education Table 5: Trends in quality enhancement indictors for primary school education 14 Table 6 Gross enrolment for selected primary schools in Uganda, Table 7: UPE programme enrolment figures in selected districts.. 16 Table 8: Trends in gross enrolment and key quality indicators of secondary Education Table 9: USE programme enrolment figures for selected years Table 10: Gross enrolment figures for selected secondary schools in Uganda, Table 11: Enrolment figures in secondary schools by grade and gender, Table 12: Pupils perceptions of education provision under UPE and USE Programmes Table 13: Teachers perceptions of the working conditions and quality of education 22 Table 14: Primary school drop outs by reason, gender and class as by Table 15: Number of pupils who sat for Primary Leaving Examinations 25 Table 16: Primary education completion rates Table 17: Enrolment figures for BTVET institutions for the period Table 18: Enrolment figures for tertiary institutions by gender Table 19: Adult literacy learners enrolment and completion rates over the years 27 Table 20: Trends in adult literacy estimates in Uganda iv P age Table 21: Adult literacy organizations, learners & instructors for the year 2007/8 30 Table 22: Education budgetary shares for the FY 2005/ Table 23: A Matrix of level of progress, interventions, key challenges and the way forward for achieving EFA goals in Uganda LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Primary school enrolment by region, Figure 2: Primary school enrolments by gender in selected districts.. 16 Figure 3: Selected secondary school enrolment by gender, Figure 4: Teacher s views on facilities under UPE programme.. 21 Figure 5: Primary school enrolment in Uganda by gender Figure 6: Primary education completion rates by gender Figure 7: Trends in gross enrolment of students in secondary education. 27 Figure 8: Trends in completion rates in secondary education Figure 9: Secondary school enrolment by region and gender v P age ACRONYMS ABEK - Alternative Basic Education for Karamoja ADRA - Adventist Development and Relief Agency AECS - Adult Education and Communication BECCAD - Basic Education and Child Care and Adolescent Development CBET - Competence Based Education and Training CE - Continuing Education CEEMS - Community Education and Extra Mural Studies DE - Distance Education DEO - District Education Officer DIS - District Inspector of Schools EARS - Educational Assessment and Resource Services ECCD - Expansion of Early Childhood Care and Development ECD - Early Childhood Development ECE - Early Childhood Education EFA - Education For All EFAG - Education Funding Agencies Group EMIS - Education Management Information System EPRC - Education Policy Review Commission ESCC - Education Sector Consultative Committee ESIP - Education Strategic Investment Plan FENU - Forum for Education NGOs in Uganda FAL - Functional Adult Literacy FAWE - Forum for Women Educationists FY - Financial Year GER - Gross Enrolment Ratio GIR - Gross Intake Ratio GOU - Government of Uganda GSR - Gross Survival Rate GWPE - Government White Paper on Education HE - Higher Education IACE - institution of Adult and Continuing Education IEQ - Improved Education Quality INSET - In-Service Education and Training KYU - Kyambogo University MFEP - Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning MITEP - Mubende Integrated Teacher Education Project MLA - Monitoring Learning Achievement MDG - Millennium Development Goal MOES - Ministry of Education and Sports MOGLSD - Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development NAPE - National Assessment of Progress in Education NCDC - National Curriculum Development Centre NCHE - National Council for Higher Education NCNAE - National Council for Non-Formal and Adult Education NGO - Non-Governmental Organisation vi P age NER - Net Enrolment Ratio NTC - National Teachers College PEAP - Poverty Eradication Action Plan PLE - Primary Leaving Examinations PRSP - Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan PTCs - Primary Teachers Colleges SWAp - Sector Wide Approach TDMP - Teacher Development Management Plan TDMS - Teacher Development Management System UNISE - Uganda National Institute for Special Education UPE - Universal Primary Education UPPET - Universal Post Primary Education and Training USE - Universal Secondary Education WB - World Bank vii P age EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An assessment which was done in 2000 on Uganda s level of attainment of EFA goals indicated progress in some areas more than in others. It was therefore critical to establish how Uganda has done since then and four year to In other words, in the count down to 2015, how is Uganda doing? The study sought to assess the extent to which the benefits of education have since 2000 been extended to all children, youth and adults in Uganda, and whether as a country we are meeting the Dakar goals. Specifically, the study sought to: Document the level of achievement of the EFA goals and challenges for the achievement of EFA goals; Identify priorities and promising strategies for overcoming obstacles and accelerating progress towards the attainment of EFA goals; Propose policy orientation and actions within the Education sector to address the challenges /gaps identified in the research; and to document lessons that can be learnt from the current level of intervention to achieve EFA goals by Using valid pre-tested tools, the assessment was done in the month of November It involved nearly 600 respondents from all the four traditional regions of the country who were stratified and either randomly or purposively sampled on the basis of their association with programmes that were relevant to the six EFA goals. They included teachers and students, DEOs, DIS, CAOs, Principals of Core PTCs, Principals of NTCs, and Deans of Teacher training faculties in universities, Commissioners of education specialties, officials of UNESCO-Uganda Commission, FAWE-Uganda, UWEZO-Uganda, and other organizations. The main methods of data collection were: documentary analysis, questionnaires, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observation. The study has revealed that Uganda has registered some significant successes in ensuring access to free and compulsory education and in reducing gender disparities especially at the primary school level. GER now stands at about 97% for primary education which could reach 100% in the next four years, if accurate population data is obtained, repetition rates are eliminated and both overage and underage pupils are reduced significantly; and if the regional disparities or those due to discrimination of disadvantaged groups such as children with disabilities are addressed. Gender disparity at primary school level has largely been eliminated although the gap of just over 10% remains in secondary and tertiary education. However, one of the greatest challenges remains that of more girls than boys not completing the primary cycle. Uganda has also made modest improvements in addressing the learning needs of youth and adults. In 2003, enrolment of students in secondary schools stood at 683,000 and this has increased to 1,202,400 in 2011 representing a 57% increase over a period of 8 years. Tertiary enrolment which was estimated at 137,011 in 2007 has also steadily increased to the current more than 350,746 students. However, the estimated GER and GIR for secondary education is 28.2% (31.2% for boys & 25.4% for girls) and 38.5% respectively, implying that six out of ten children who should be in our secondary schools are not at school. Similarly for tertiary education, it is estimated that the GER is only about 6-9% (2-3 % in 2000) i.e. many Ugandans aged years and are not in tertiary institutions. However, the greatest challenges remain in the areas of Early Childhood Education and Care, Adult literacy and improvements on the quality of education. Adult literacy has only viii Page increased from an estimated 54% in 1990 to the current 74.6% i.e. an average of 1% per annum over the last 20 years. As a country Uganda has only scored 40% on this 4 th EFA goal. The current GER for Early Childhood Education is 8.6% (EMIS, 2011), which makes the achievement of this goal untenable in the remaining 3 years. The National Assessment of Progress in Education (NAPE) last year (2010) also carried out proficiency assessments in literacy and numeracy and established that although improvements were being registered, there were a number of challenges. At P3, 72.8% of the pupils were rated proficient in Numeracy and 57.6% reached a similar level of proficiency in Literacy. At P6 level, about a half of the pupils reached the defined proficiency level in both Numeracy and Literacy in English: 54.8% and 50.2% respectively. Using the UNESCO Education for All Development Index (EDI), which is the computed value for four of the six EFA goals to assess Uganda s overall progress, the overall score on the four EFA goals is 63.6%. Uganda is therefore just over half-way to the attainment of four EFA goals that exclude ECE; ensuring that the learning needs of youth and adults are met; and improvements in education quality. It was concluded that Uganda could achieve two of the six EFA goals by 2015 (Goal 2 & 5); and attain a score of more than 70% for the third goal but a score of less than 50% in the remaining goals unless significant efforts and resources are channelled for their attainment by the Government of Uganda. However, given the competing demands for resources as a result of the focus on UPE and USE programmes, it is unlikely that the other goals could receive similar attention in the remaining four years. The key lessons that can be learnt form the current level of intervention are that political commitment, a high level of government support and effective partnership with other stakeholders are central to the attainment of all the EFA goals. In particular funding levels and the provision of appropriate policies and strategies together with effective monitoring ensure success as can be exemplified by the UPE and now USE programmes. The scarcity of resources has made government focus on access to basic education at the expense of early childhood education, tertiary education, adult literacy and quality of education. Another lesson is that reforms in the education sub-sector at any one level or aspect have ramifications on the other sub-sectors or aspects, meaning that other sub-sectors or aspects will in turn need reforms. This has been true of the effect of the UPE Bulge on post primary education which has forced government to support the secondary and tertiary subsectors as well. In order to achieve some of these goals by 2015, increased funding is required in addition to systematic implementation strategies. The development partners still need to sustain the initiatives of government and this should be done with the objective of ensuring long-term funding. Although it is unlikely that Government will directly involve itself in the provision of ECE before 2015, it should improve monitoring and give incentives for the private sector to establish ECE centres beyond the Central region. Community supported ECE could also be started in primary schools with unutilized classroom space. Funding for Adult literacy and non-formal education programmes should be increased. Government should make a major policy shift to Competence Based Education and Training and focus affirmative action on redressing regional and the rural-urban disparities. The necessary laws should be enacted to ensure that girls remain at school at all levels of education, but particularly at primary and secondary school levels. Besides the current interventions, Government should ensure quality education in order to motivate learners to stay at school by re-tooling and motivating teachers, and improving the participation and monitoring of learning by the local government and communities. ix P age CHAPTER ONE I N T R O D U C T I O N 1.1 Background Education for All (EFA) is an international initiative first launched in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990 to bring benefits of education to every citizen in every society. In order to realize this goal, a broad coalition of national governments, civil society organizations, and development agencies committed to achieving six specific educational goals, namely: (i) Expand and improve early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children. (ii) Ensure that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, those in difficult circumstances, and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete, free, and compulsory primary education of good quality. (iii) Ensure that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes. (iv) Achieve a 50% improvement in adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults. (v) Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. (vi) Improve all aspects of quality education and ensure excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. After a decade of slow progress, the international community reaffirmed its commitment to EFA in Dakar, Senegal, in April This commitment was again voiced in September of the same year, when 189 countries and their partners adopted two EFA goals as Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). Although the MDGs 2 and 3 refer only to issues of universal primary education and gender parity, respectively, it is generally recognized that achieving the MDGs requires supporting the full EFA commitment since education plays a critical role in their achievement. 1.2 Interventions for achieving EFA goals in Uganda The Government of Uganda has made serious strides towards implementation of EFA goals and objectives. These strides include: Adoption of the sector-wide approach to funding education in order to maximise benefits, decentralization of governance and management of education; adoption of free Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1997, Functional Adult Literacy in 2001 and the Universal Secondary Education (UPPET) in 2006; expansion of infrastructure in schools; introduction of affirmative action towards the education of the girl child and vulnerable groups; promotion of private-public partnerships; and promotion of guidance and counselling in schools. For example, 54 secondary school science laboratories have been constructed and equipped with support from ADB, and 14 in Primary Teachers Colleges among other initiatives. 1 P age Government has also decentralized the management of adult literacy and both primary, and secondary education, although the implementation of the latter has not fully been done. Apart from improving participation, decentralization strengthens supervision. Despite the decentralization drive, some aspects of management remain centralized. The Universal Primary Education has seen a rise in gross enrolment from 2.5 million pupils before the introduction of the programme to the current 9 million. Despite this phenomenal growth in enrolment, there are a number of challenges which directly or indirectly impact on the EFA goals. For instance, the drops out rates are alarmingly high (estimated at between 60-70%). As well there is a high teacher-pupil ratio and the lack of adequate infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The situation is similar in many schools that have introduced the Universal Secondary education (UPPET). Similarly adult literacy has seen a rise in enrolment levels over the years from 1000 in 2001 to 1,502,491 learners in 2010 although the programmes continue to face challenges of inadequate budgetary allocation, dependency on voluntary literacy instructors thus high dropout as well as inadequate literacy and instructional materials.. Affirmative action in public universities has resulted in increased female enrolment; by and large a good outcome except for the fact that most of these females remain excluded from science and technology related courses. Most of these challenges are due to the insufficient budgetary resources, inadequate infrastructure and the lack of effective monitoring and support supervision. The country has also experienced conflict in various parts of the country spanning in some cases a period of 30 years which negatively affects the attainment of educational goals and objectives. A recent phenomenon is the issue of climate change and its impacts on educational infrastructure such as classrooms. There are also significant variations in the availability of equipment and supplies in the different schools found in the various parts of the country, with hard to reach areas such as Karamoja, Bundibugyo and Kalangala Islands of Lake Victoria being worst affected. These hard to reach areas also attract and retain very few teachers. 1.3 Problem statement EFA goals are being pursued by the Government of Uganda with some successes such as the implementation of the UPE and USE programmes. Through these programmes, the country has been able to expand overall enrolment at basic education level. However, the situation also presents a number of challenges that may be impacting on the quality of education. All these imply that there are successes and challenges in the attainment of EFA goals in Uganda. An assessment was done in 2000 which indicated progress in some areas more than in others. It is therefore critical to establish how Uganda is doing in terms of attainment of EFA goals by In other words, in the count down to 2015, how is Uganda doing? This study will attempt to establish how far Uganda as a country is in attaining EFA goals. If this is not done, it may be difficult to design strategies to overcome the challenges that may hinder the full attainment of EFA goals by The results will no doubt inform policy makers, planners and managers about the progress that we so far attained in the EFA road map to The findings could also assist the country to re-focus its attention to education and re-invigorate efforts to meet the basic learning needs. The report could also form a basis for discussion and decis
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